Journal of the Association for Information Systems


Expectation disconfirmation theory (EDT) posits that expectations, disconfirmation, and performance influence customer satisfaction. While information systems researchers have adopted EDT to explain user information technology (IT) satisfaction, they often use various EDT model subsets. Leaving out one or more key variables, or key relationships among the variables, can reduce EDT’s explanatory potential. It can also suggest an intervention for practice that is very different from (and inferior to) the intervention suggested by a more complete model. Performance is an especially beneficial but largely neglected EDT construct in IT research. Using EDT theory from the marketing literature, this paper explains and demonstrates the incremental value of using the complete IT EDT model with performance versus the simplified model without it. Studying software users, we find that the complete model with performance both reveals assimilation effects for less experienced users and uncovers asymmetric effects not found in the simplified model. We also find that usefulness performance more strongly influences usage continuance intention than does any other EDT variable. We explain how researchers and practitioners can take full advantage of the predictive and explanatory power of the complete IT EDT model.