Concentration, Competence, Confidence, and Capture: An Experimental Study of Age, Interruption-based Technostress, and Task Performance
Stefan Tams, Jason B Thatcher, Varun Grover
The proliferation of information and communication technologies such as instant messenger has created ever more workplace interruptions that cause employee stress and productivity losses across the world. This growth in interruptions has paralleled another trend: the graying of the workforce, signifying that the labor force is aging rapidly. Insights from theories of stress and cognitive aging suggest that older people may be particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of interruptions. Hence, this study examines whether, how, and why technology-mediated interruptions impact stress and task performance differently for older compared to younger adults. The study develops a mediated moderation model explaining why older people may be more susceptible to the negative impacts of technology-mediated interruptions than younger ones, in terms of greater mental workload, more stress, and lower performance. The model hypothesizes that age acts as a moderator of the interruptionñstress relationship due to age-related differences in inhibitory effectiveness, computer experience, computer self-efficacy, and attentional capture. We refer to these age-related differences as Concentration, Competence, Confidence, and Capture, respectively, or the 4 Cís. We tested our model through a laboratory experiment with a 2 x 2 x 2 mixed-model design, manipulating the frequency with which interruptions appear on the screen and their salience (e.g., reddish colors). We found that age acts as a moderator of the interruptionñstress link due to differences in concentration, competence, and confidence, but not capture. Thus, this study contributes to IS research by elucidating explicitly the role of age in IS phenomena, especi interruption-based technostress.

The Role of Business Intelligence and Communication Technologies in Organizational Agility: A Configurational Approach
YoungKi Park, Omar A. El Sawy, Peer C Fiss
This study examines the role of business intelligence (BI) and communication technologies in achieving organizational sensing agility, decision-making agility, and acting agility in different organizational and environmental contexts. Based on the information processing view of organizations and dynamic capability theory, we conceptualize main elements and suggest a configurational analytic framework that departs from the standard linear paradigm to examine how the effect of IT on agility is embedded in a configuration of organizational and environmental elements. In line with this approach, we use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to analyze field survey data from diverse industries. Our findings suggest equifinal pathways to organizational agility and the specific boundary conditions of our middle range theory that determine the role of BI and communication technologies in achieving organizational agility. Implications for theory and practice are derived and future research avenues are suggested.

Digital Business Convergence and Emerging Contested Fields: A Conceptual Framework
DongBack Seo
Due to innovations in digital technologies, organizations that used to practice their business in discrete industries are now confronting radically transformed environments with new competitors from other industries. To understand this phenomenon of digital business convergence, the theory of strategic action fields is adopted from the literature on social movements and organizations. Elements of this theory are used to analyze the actions of organizations in contested fields instead of taking a vertical, horizontal, or single industry perspective. Specifically, we look at how organizations utilize different types of mobilizabilities (political, social, and technological) to influence the emergence and evolution of contested fields. This paper raises research questions about digital business convergence, suggests ways to investigate those questions, and provides a conceptual framework to study organizationsí strategies and behaviors from a strategic action field perspective.

Affect Infusion and Detection through Faces in Computer-Mediated Knowledge Sharing Decisions
Dennis Fehrenbacher
Faces are important in both human communication and computer-mediated communication. This study analyses the influence of emotional expressions in faces on knowledge sharing decisions in a computer-mediated environment. The study suggests that faces can be used for affect infusion as well as affect detection thereby increasing the effectiveness of knowledge management systems. Using the affect infusion model, it is discussed why emotions can be expected to influence knowledge sharing decisions. Using the two-step primitive emotional contagion framework, the results show an influence of an emotional facial expression attached to a knowledge sharing request on a knowledge sharing decision. This influence is mediated by the decision makerís emotional valence in the facial expression tracked by Face Reader technology and holds for females not males. Implications for designers of emotionally intelligent information systems and research are discussed.

Controlling for Lexical Closeness in Survey Research: A Demonstration on the Technology Acceptance Model
David Gefen, Kai Larsen
Word co-occurrences in text carry lexical information that can be harvested by data-mining tools such as latent semantic analysis (LSA). This research perspectives article (RPA) demonstrates the potency of using such embedded information by demonstrating that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be reconstructed significantly by analyzing unrelated newspaper articles. It is suggested that, possibly, part of the reason for the phenomenal statistical validity of TAM across contexts may be related to the lexical closeness among the keywords in its measurement items. This is not brought as a critique of TAM but as praise to the quality of its methodology. Next, putting that LSA reconstruction of TAM into perspective, it is shown that empirical data can provide a significantly better fitting model than LSA data can. Combined, the results raise the possibility that a significant portion of variance in survey based research is the consequence of word co-occurrences in the language itself, regardless of the theory or context of the study. Addressing this possibility, the RPA suggests a method to statistically control for lexical closeness.

Shared Benefits and Information Privacy: What Determines Smart Meter Technology Adoption?
Merrill Warkentin, Sanjay Goel, Philip Menard
An unexplored gap in the IT adoption research concerns the positive role of shared benefits even when personal information is exposed. To explore the evaluation paradigm of shared benefits vs. the forfeiture of personal information, we chose the adoption of smart metering technologies (SMT) by utility consumers. In this context, utility companies are able to monitor electricity usage and directly control consumersí appliances to disable them during peak load conditions. Such information could reveal consumersí habits and lifestyles, stimulating concerns about their privacy and the loss of control over their appliances. Responding to calls for theory contextualization, we assess the efficacy of applying extant adoption theories in this emergent context while adding the perspective of the psychological ownership of information. We use the factorial survey method to assess consumersí intentions to adopt SMT in the presence of specific conditions that could reduce the degree of their privacy or their control over their appliances and electricity usage data. Our findings suggest that, although the shared benefit of avoiding disruptions in electricity supply (brownouts) is a significant factor in electricity consumersí decisions to adopt SMT, concerns about control and information privacy are also factors. Our findings extend the previous adoption research by exploring the role of shared benefits and could provide utility companies with insights into the best ways to present SMT to alleviate consumersí concerns and maximize its adoption.

User Resistance to the Implementation of Information Systems: A Psychological Contract Breach Perspective
Shiu-Li Huang, Tung-Ching Lin, Shun-Chi Chiang
The current study proposes an exploratory model to examine the antecedents of user resistance in information system (IS) implementations from the perspective of a psychological contract breach (PCB). The purpose of this study is to investigate PCBs between users and IS providers (ISPs), which extends IS theory in two ways: by elaborating on why some users psychologically resist the IS, and by more deeply exploring the social-psychological determinants of user resistance. Our results show that user perceived PCB can lead to user resistance and feelings of violation via reneging, high user vigilance, and incongruence between the usersí and the ISPís understandings of the obligations. Our results also show that usersí interpretations, i.e., causal attribution of the breach and perceived fairness after the breach, moderate the relationship between user perceived PCB and feelings of violation. We discuss our findings and their academic and practical implications, and suggest directions for future research.

Understanding User Adaptation toward a New IT System in Organizations: A Social Network Perspective
Yi Wu, Ben Choi, Xitong Guo, Klarissa Chang
Social networks can be a vital mechanism for users to adapt to changes induced by a new IT system in organizations. However, the effect of social networks on post-adoption IT use is not well understood. Drawing on coping theory and the social network literature, a cognitiveñaffectiveñbehavioral classification of user adaptation is developed, and seeking-network closure and giving-network closure are identified as key network characteristics pertinent to post-adoption IT use. Thereafter, this paper establishes a theoretical link from seeking-network closure and giving-network closure to post-adoption IT use through the underlying mechanisms of user adaptation. The research model is operationalized using a field survey of a newly implemented electronic medical record system in a hospital in Northeast China, where network data and objective system logs of 104 doctors were collected. Seeking-network closure is found to be positively associated with cognitive adaptation but is negatively associated with affective adaptation and behavioral adaptation, whereas giving-network closure is negatively associated with cognitive adaptation but is positively associated with affective adaptation and behavioral adaptation. Moreover, cognitive adaptation and affective adaptation are determinants of post-adoption IT use, but behavioral adaptation is not. Theoretical and practical contributions are discussed.

A Paradox of Progressive Saturation: The Changing Nature of Improvisation over Time in a Systems Development Project
Wolfgang Molnar, Joe Nandhakumar, Patrick Stacey
In this paper, we investigate improvisation in a systems development project within the context of safety-critical, rigid quality management standards. This study took place within a technology company in the automotive industry over a 31-month period and focused on the development of an innovative information system for automobiles. Our analysis traced different forms of improvised practice over the course of a systems development project at the company, along with various triggers of improvisation. We found that as the project progressed, the latitude to improvise became saturated by the increasing structural influences on improvisation. Yet, paradoxically, these structural influences provoked developers to improvise in ways that were progressively more innovative by drawing on accumulated knowledge; we call this phenomenon a ëparadox of progressive saturationí. The study identifies ten forms of improvisation unfolding across different stages of a systems development project. We offer a conceptualization of the paradox of progressive saturation to represent the changing nature of improvisation over time, which contributes to the literature on improvisation in information systems development.

Fast and Slow Processes Underlying Theories of Information Technology Use
Thomas W. Ferratt, Jayesh Prasad, E. James Dunne
Although theories of information technology (IT) use have been widely researched, underutilization of IT assets continues to be a significant issue for organizations. Both novel theoretical development and new directions for future research are needed. In this essay we address both of these needs. Regarding the first need, we develop novel theory by explaining two types of cognitive processes ñ one fast and one slow ñ that underlie theories of IT use. The impetus for our explanation of underlying processes (EUP) comes from studies of IT use that have found moderating effects of previous interaction with IT. With these results researchers have concluded that cognitions are less important in determining IT use as the use of that IT increases. Consistent with that conclusion, our EUP posits that as learning from prior use occurs, the influence of fast, automatic, unconscious (type 1) cognitive processes increases while influence decreases for slow, controlled, conscious (type 2) cognitive processes. Type 1 processes automatically generate a default type 1 response; type 2 processes have the potential to generate an intervening type 2 response. The intervention potential is highest for initial use of the target IT and lowest when learning is high such that use of the IT has become automatic. Insights arising from our EUP are that (a) the cognitions leading to a default response are not necessarily the cognitions found in extant theories of IT use, (b) both type 1 and type 2 processes are subject to bounded rationality, and (c) the relationship between learning and the intervention potential for a type 2 response, although negative, may not be linear. To address the second need noted above, we suggest new directions for future research, including investigating the cognitive control problem, i.e., when type 2 processes intervene, and exploring the effects of heuristics, nudges, and bounded rationality on decisions to use IT. Beyond the hope that the suggested directions for research will yield solutions for addressing the underutilization of IT assets, the fundamental advances in theoretical understanding presented here suggest notable implications for practice, including developing brief, simple, cognitively unconscious messages directed at nudging decision makers toward a default response to use the target IT.

E-Commerce Product Networks, Word-of-Mouth Convergence and Product Sales
Zhijie Lin, Quansheng Wang
Driven by the network theory on status, we propose an interesting argument that network connection between two products affects their word-of-mouth (WOM) rating convergence, and WOM rating convergence affects their sales. To empirically validate this argument, we analyze data from China's largest business-to-consumer platform, Tmall.com. Addressing potential endogeneity issue and performing various robustness checks to ensure the consistency of our findings in various ways, we find that network connection between two products via recommender systems is related to the convergence of WOM rating between the two products. Moreover, WOM rating convergence between two products is associated with a decrease in the sales quantity of the product with higher WOM rating whereas it is associated with an increase in the sales quantity of the product with lower WOM rating. Overall, WOM rating convergence is associated with an increase in the total sales quantity of the two products. Our findings provide important theoretical contributions and notable implications for e-commerce product marketing and platform design.