Forthcoming Papers

Understanding Online Health Information Use: The Case of People with Physical Disabilities
Hiugang Liang, Yajiong Xue, Zhiruo Zhang
This study intends to understand the online health information use behavior of people with physical disabilities. Drawing on rational choice theory and IS success model, we develop a contextualized research model to explain how the effects of object- and outcome-based beliefs are moderated by individuals’ level of physical disability. The model was empirically tested by survey data from 243 online users with physical disabilities. The results show that online health information use is enhanced by perceived benefit and reduced by perceived risk. Information quality and system quality increase perceived benefit and mitigate perceived risk. In addition, information quality is found to be predicted by accuracy, completeness, currency, and transparency of online health information, whereas system quality is predicted by accessibility, navigability, and readability of online health information. More important, we found that physical disability weakens the effect of information quality on perceived risk, strengthens the effect of system quality on perceived risk, and strengthens the effect of perceived benefits on information use. This research contributes to the IS literature by focusing on the minority group of people with physical disabilities and providing an in-depth understanding of their online health information use behavior.

Evaluating Business Process Maturity Models
Amy Van Looy, Geert Poels, Monique Snoeck
Maturity models have become important aids to support process improvement. The many business process maturity models (BPMMs) are, however, frequently criticized for differing in quality, which creates a demand for comparing and evaluating these models. This paper describes a well-founded, ranked and weighted set of critical criteria for BPMMs that are most important to prospective users. The paper also demonstrates how this set can serve as a standard or guideline for designing BPMMs. The evaluation of the used sample of BPMMs against the set of criteria uncovers gaps and shortcomings of current BPMMs. This allows the identification of implications to raise the quality of BPMMs and highlights future research avenues.

Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: Surrendering Privacy for Security’s Sake in an Identity Ecosystem
Robert Crossler, Clay Posey
Despite individuals’ and organizations’ best efforts, many significant information security threats exist. To alleviate these threats, new digital environments termed identity ecosystems have been proposed. These ecosystems would provide protection against attackers in that users of the ecosystem would need to be authenticated via a third-party intermediary. While the additional security is welcomed, significant concern exists regarding ecosystem users’ privacy. For example, the possibility of targeted attacks against the centralized identity repository, potential mismanagement of the verified credentials of millions of users, and the threat of activity monitoring andsurveillance become serious privacy considerations. Thus, individuals must be willing to surrender personal privacy to a known intermediary to obtain the additional levels of protection suggested by the proposed ecosystems. We investigate the reasons why individuals would use a future identity ecosystem that exhibits such a privacy-security tradeoff. Specifically, our mixed-methods approach helped elicit and assess the major factors associated with such decisions. We show that (1) intrapersonal characteristics, (2) perceptions of the controlling agent, and (3) perceptions of the system are key categories for driving intentions to use ecosystems. Trustworthiness of the controlling agent, perceived inconvenience, system efficacy, behavioral-based inertia, censorship attitude, and previous similar experience were shown to significantly explain variance in intentions. Interestingly, general privacy concerns failed to exhibit significant relationships with intentions in any of our use contexts. We discuss what these findings mean for research and practice as well as provide guidance for future research investigating identity ecosystems and the AIS Bright ICT Initiative.

Effects of Animation on Attentional Resources of Online Consumers
Muller Cheung, Weiyin Hong, James Thong
Animation is commonly used on websites to capture the attentional resources of online consumers. While prior research has focused on the effects of animation on animated banner ads, there is limited research into the effects of animation on other items on the same webpage. Drawing from psychological theories that the size of attentional resources of an individual is not fixed but can vary under different conditions, this study focuses on the effect of animation on the allocation of attentional resources to both the animated item and the remaining non-animated items. We conducted an eye-tracking experiment to follow online consumers’ visual attention while they performed two types of online shopping tasks, i.e., browsing and searching tasks. The results showed that the use of animation on a product item leads to increased visual attention to all items on a webpage, suggesting that the size of attentional resources increases when animation is present on a webpage. Meanwhile, the use of animation influences the allocation of attentional resources, such that it increased visual attention on the animated items at the expense of attention on nonanimated items on the same webpage. In addition, the effect of animation on allocation of attentional resources is also moderated by the type of shopping task. Specifically, the effect of animation on attracting attentional resources to the animated items is stronger when online consumers are browsing than when they are searching for a specific target item. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications.

Business Intelligence Capability: The Effect of Top Management and the Mediating Roles of User Participation and Analytical Decision-Making Orientation
Uday Kulkarni, Jose Antonio Robles-Flores, Ales Popovic
In this study, we draw upon the structurational model of technology in an institutional setting to investigate how top management affects the development of a firm’s business intelligence (BI) capability. We propose a multiple mediator model in which organizational factors, such as user participation and analytical decision-making orientation, act as mediating mechanisms that transmit the positive effects of top management championship to advance a firm’s BI capability. BI capability has two distinct aspects, namely information capability and BI system capability. Drawing on data collected from 486 firms from six different countries, we found support for the mediating effects of top management championship through user participation and analytical decision-making orientation. These findings contribute to a nuanced understanding of how BI capability can be developed within firms. This is one of the first studies to comprehensively investigate the antecedents of BI capability.

Do Shareholders Value Green Information Technology Announcements?
Rohit Nishant, Thompson Teo, Mark Goh
Using NRBV and signaling theory, an event study is conducted using the Fama-French fourfactor (FFM4) model to determine how shareholders react to company announcements about adopting information technology (IT) to address environmental issues. Findings show that green IT announcements generate positive abnormal returns and increased share trading volume. Initiatives using IT to support decision-making (ITDSS) cause positive stock market reactions. Firms with good environmental performance records enjoy positive market returns from ITDSS and direct IT assets and infrastructure (ITASSETS) announcements. In contrast, shareholders react negatively to announcements regarding sustainable products and services (SPDTSVC). Combining NRBV with signaling theory provides deeper theoretical insights than either theory alone. The findings could be a basis for further research and theory development on the different types of green IT and impacts on market value. The results facilitate better understanding of how firm characteristics and different types of green IT announcements impact market value, with significant implications for the planning and allocation of firm resources to support green initiatives.

Using Information Systems in Innovation Networks: Uncovering Network Resources
Sven-Volker Rehm, Lakshmi Goel, Iris Junglas
In order to innovate firms progressively combine complementary abilities through the formation of networks. Such innovation networks are temporary assemblages of partners that, in collaboration, pursue new product developments. Existing theories suggest that successful participation in such networks is predicated on firms having certain firm-level dynamic capabilities, i.e., they are skilled in sensing the network and its environment, learning about the network, and coordinating and integrating individual resources across the network. In this paper, we argue that firms also have to develop particular networking capabilities, i.e., they have to understand who they are partnering with, what each partner is able to contribute, and how exactly each partner is able to cooperate with others across the network. As we will show, inter-organizational information systems (IS) are vital for facilitating the development of these networking capabilities. IS are also vital in developing unique constellations of resources (i.e., physical, human, and organizational resources) that we term IS-embedded network resources. These are manifested in the IS and are unique to the innovation network as they go beyond resources at the firm level. Using three innovation networks as case studies, we provide empiric evidence on how IS support networking capabilities to arrive at unique resource constellations embedded in IS, and how the set of IS-embedded network resources is a determining factor for competitive advantage in innovation networks.

Concentration, Competence, Confidence, and Capture: An Experimental Study of Age, Interruption-based Technostress, and Task Performance
Stefan Tams, Jason B Thatcher, Varun Grover
The proliferation of information and communication technologies such as instant messenger has created ever more workplace interruptions that cause employee stress and productivity losses across the world. This growth in interruptions has paralleled another trend: the graying of the workforce, signifying that the labor force is aging rapidly. Insights from theories of stress and cognitive aging suggest that older people may be particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of interruptions. Hence, this study examines whether, how, and why technology-mediated interruptions impact stress and task performance differently for older compared to younger adults. The study develops a mediated moderation model explaining why older people may be more susceptible to the negative impacts of technology-mediated interruptions than younger ones, in terms of greater mental workload, more stress, and lower performance. The model hypothesizes that age acts as a moderator of the interruption–stress relationship due to age-related differences in inhibitory effectiveness, computer experience, computer self-efficacy, and attentional capture. We refer to these age-related differences as Concentration, Competence, Confidence, and Capture, respectively, or the 4 C’s. We tested our model through a laboratory experiment with a 2 x 2 x 2 mixed-model design, manipulating the frequency with which interruptions appear on the screen and their salience (e.g., reddish colors). We found that age acts as a moderator of the interruption–stress link due to differences in concentration, competence, and confidence, but not capture. Thus, this study contributes to IS research by elucidating explicitly the role of age in IS phenomena, especi interruption-based technostress.

The Role of Business Intelligence and Communication Technologies in Organizational Agility: A Configurational Approach
YoungKi Park, Omar A El-Sawy, Peer C Fiss
This study examines the role of business intelligence (BI) and communication technologies in achieving organizational sensing agility, decision-making agility, and acting agility in different organizational and environmental contexts. Based on the information processing view of organizations and dynamic capability theory, we conceptualize main elements and suggest a configurational analytic framework that departs from the standard linear paradigm to examine how the effect of IT on agility is embedded in a configuration of organizational and environmental elements. In line with this approach, we use fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to analyze field survey data from diverse industries. Our findings suggest equifinal pathways to organizational agility and the specific boundary conditions of our middle range theory that determine the role of BI and communication technologies in achieving organizational agility. Implications for theory and practice are derived and future research avenues are suggested.

Digital Business Convergence and Emerging Contested Fields: A Conceptual Framework
DongBack Seo
Due to innovations in digital technologies, organizations that used to practice their business in discrete industries are now confronting radically transformed environments with new competitors from other industries. To understand this phenomenon of digital business convergence, the theory of strategic action fields is adopted from the literature on social movements and organizations. Elements of this theory are used to analyze the actions of organizations in contested fields instead of taking a vertical, horizontal, or single industry perspective. Specifically, we look at how organizations utilize different types of mobilizabilities (political, social, and technological) to influence the emergence and evolution of contested fields. This paper raises research questions about digital business convergence, suggests ways to investigate those questions, and provides a conceptual framework to study organizations’ strategies and behaviors from a strategic action field perspective.

Affect Infusion and Detection through Faces in Computer-Mediated Knowledge Sharing Decisions
Dennis Fehrenbacher
Faces are important in both human communication and computer-mediated communication. This study analyses the influence of emotional expressions in faces on knowledge sharing decisions in a computer-mediated environment. The study suggests that faces can be used for affect infusion as well as affect detection thereby increasing the effectiveness of knowledge management systems. Using the affect infusion model, it is discussed why emotions can be expected to influence knowledge sharing decisions. Using the two-step primitive emotional contagion framework, the results show an influence of an emotional facial expression attached to a knowledge sharing request on a knowledge sharing decision. This influence is mediated by the decision maker’s emotional valence in the facial expression tracked by Face Reader technology and holds for females not males. Implications for designers of emotionally intelligent information systems and research are discussed.

Controlling for Lexical Closeness in Survey Research: A Demonstration on the Technology Acceptance Model
David Gefen, Kai Larsen
Word co-occurrences in text carry lexical information that can be harvested by data-mining tools such as latent semantic analysis (LSA). This research perspectives article (RPA) demonstrates the potency of using such embedded information by demonstrating that the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) can be reconstructed significantly by analyzing unrelated newspaper articles. It is suggested that, possibly, part of the reason for the phenomenal statistical validity of TAM across contexts may be related to the lexical closeness among the keywords in its measurement items. This is not brought as a critique of TAM but as praise to the quality of its methodology. Next, putting that LSA reconstruction of TAM into perspective, it is shown that empirical data can provide a significantly better fitting model than LSA data can. Combined, the results raise the possibility that a significant portion of variance in survey based research is the consequence of word co-occurrences in the language itself, regardless of the theory or context of the study. Addressing this possibility, the RPA suggests a method to statistically control for lexical closeness.

Shared Benefits and Information Privacy: What Determines Smart Meter Technology Adoption?
Merrill Warkentin, Sanjay Goel, Philip Menard
An unexplored gap in the IT adoption research concerns the positive role of shared benefits even when personal information is exposed. To explore the evaluation paradigm of shared benefits vs. the forfeiture of personal information, we chose the adoption of smart metering technologies (SMT) by utility consumers. In this context, utility companies are able to monitor electricity usage and directly control consumers’ appliances to disable them during peak load conditions. Such information could reveal consumers’ habits and lifestyles, stimulating concerns about their privacy and the loss of control over their appliances. Responding to calls for theory contextualization, we assess the efficacy of applying extant adoption theories in this emergent context while adding the perspective of the psychological ownership of information. We use the factorial survey method to assess consumers’ intentions to adopt SMT in the presence of specific conditions that could reduce the degree of their privacy or their control over their appliances and electricity usage data. Our findings suggest that, although the shared benefit of avoiding disruptions in electricity supply (brownouts) is a significant factor in electricity consumers’ decisions to adopt SMT, concerns about control and information privacy are also factors. Our findings extend the previous adoption research by exploring the role of shared benefits and could provide utility companies with insights into the best ways to present SMT to alleviate consumers’ concerns and maximize its adoption.