Intervention Effect Rates as a Path to Research Relevance: Information Systems Security Example
Mikko Siponen, Richard Baskerville
In the current information systems security (ISS) research, new theory contributions are especially valued. This research follows the following formula: Suggest a new theory (or set of constructs) of ISS and show that it is empirically supported, then suggest another new theory (or set of constructs with some linkages) and show that it is empirically supported, and so on. Despite the merits of this approach, it leaves out many important scientific aspects. For example, after more than 30 years of ISS research, (1) little is known about the conditions and situations to which new theories (or constructs) do not apply; (2) we do not know which new theories are more effective than others in solving an ISS problem; and (3) we have not demonstrated that our best research, or new theoretical contributions, can beat industry best practices or practitioners' intuitive approaches. We suggest that ISS research be examined in terms of long-term research programs comprising four levels: meta-level research, basic research, applied research, and post-intervention research. The ultimate success of such programs does not entail new theories, contextualized theories, or adding IT artifacts to theories; rather, it hinges on the question of which program can demonstrate the best intervention effect rate for a given ISS problem. The lack of demonstrated intervention effectiveness (e.g., by showing treatment effect rates) is one important inhibitor that may prevent ISS research from achieving relevance in practice. Without reporting such evidence, ISS research cannot overpower the folklore, fads, or industry's best practices that often guide operations. With such treatment effect rates, evidence-based practice may become more justifiable. We believe that our ideas also can be applied to information systems research in general.

Optimal Freemium Strategy for Information Goods in the Presence of Piracy
Guofang Nan, Dan Wu, Minqiang Li, Yong Tan
Information goods providers adopt freemium strategy to reduce consumer uncertainty and combat piracy. However, offering a free version may cannibalize the demand for the premium version. In this paper, we investigate the trade-off between the effect of decreasing uncertainty and that of cannibalization, and explore the conditions under which the firm should adopt freemium strategy in the presence of piracy. We employ a two-stage consumer perception adjustment model to examine the optimal pricing and the feasibility of freemium strategy. Our results show that a higher piracy enforcement level may hurt the firm if consumers' perception increment about the quality of the premium version is higher than the quality perception increment of the pirated version. This indicates that the presence of a pirated version is not always harmful for the firm. We also find that when consumers' perception increment about the quality of the premium version is lower than the quality perception increment of the free version, the traditional strategy (i.e., not offering a free version) weakly dominates the freemium strategy. In contrast, when consumers derive a higher quality perception increment from the premium version, the optimal strategy depends on the piracy enforcement level and the change in consumer quality perception. If the piracy enforcement level is high, the freemium strategy dominates the traditional strategy when consumers' quality perception increment of the premium version is higher than a given threshold. However, for a low piracy enforcement level, the traditional strategy dominates when consumers derive a higher quality perception and a lower quality perception increment from the pirated version than from the free version.

User Resistance to the Implementation of Information Systems: A Psychological Contract Breach Perspective
Shiu-Li Huang, Tung-Ching Lin, Shun-Chi Chiang
The current study proposes an exploratory model to examine the antecedents of user resistance in information system (IS) implementations from the perspective of a psychological contract breach (PCB). The purpose of this study is to investigate PCBs between users and IS providers (ISPs), which extends IS theory in two ways: by elaborating on why some users psychologically resist the IS, and by more deeply exploring the social-psychological determinants of user resistance. Our results show that user perceived PCB can lead to user resistance and feelings of violation via reneging, high user vigilance, and incongruence between the users' and the ISP's understandings of the obligations. Our results also show that users' interpretations, i.e., causal attribution of the breach and perceived fairness after the breach, moderate the relationship between user perceived PCB and feelings of violation. We discuss our findings and their academic and practical implications, and suggest directions for future research.

The Use of Impression Management Strategies to Manage Stock Market Reactions to IT Failures
Jason Triche, Eric Walden
In this work we show how organizational impression management strategies can influence stock market reactions to information technology (IT) failures. Using the resource-based view of the firm and organizational impression management strategies together, we analyze what strategies work under which type and cause of IT failures. We perform an event study on a sample of 214 IT failures over eight years, and find that a firm's choice of organizational impression management strategy has a significant effect on a firm's market value. On average, over $212 million of market value can be saved with the correct impression management strategy. For implementation failures, we find that assertive strategies are better than defensive strategies. Conversely, for operational failures, defensive strategies are superior. Furthermore, we examine failures caused by human error and discuss the impacts. This research provides new theoretical insights to the resource-based view of the firm.

Emotional Attachment, Performance, and Viability in Teams Collaborating with Embodied Physical Action (EPA) Robots
Lionel Robert, Sangseok You
Overall, this paper has two goals: (1) to examine whether a team's emotional attachment to its robots leads to more effective teamwork and (2) to understand how to promote emotional attachment to robots within such teams. In this study, robots represent a specific type of collaborative technology where collaboration takes place through embodied physical actions. To accomplish our two goals, we first examined whether a team's emotional attachment toward its robots would lead to increases in the team's performance and viability. Team performance and viability - the likelihood that the team will continue to exist - are both important assessments of effective teamwork (Balkundi & Harrison, 2006). Second, we examined whether robot identification and team identification would promote a team's emotional attachment to its robots. To this end, we conducted a between-subjects experiment with 57 teams working with robots. Results indicate that a team's emotional attachment to its robots increases both the team's performance and its viability. In other words, teams working with robots performed better and were more viable when they were emotionally attached to their robots. In addition, both robot identification and team identification were associated with increases in a team's emotional attachment to its robots.

Design Science Research Contributions: Finding a Balance between Artifact and Theory
Richard Baskerville, Alan Hevner, Abayomi Baiyere, Matti Rossi, Shirley Gregor
With the rising interest in Design Science Research (DSR), it is crucial to engage in the ongoing debate on what constitutes an acceptable contribution for publishing DSR - the design artifact, the design theory, or both. In this editorial, we provide some constructive guidance across different positioning statements with actionable recommendations for DSR authors and reviewers. We expect this editorial to serve as a foundational step towards clarifying misconceptions about DSR contributions and to pave the way for the acceptance of more DSR papers to top IS journals.

The Effects of Media Capabilities on the Rationalization of Online Consumer Fraud
Andrew Harrison
This research develops and tests a model of online consumer fraud to determine how the capabilities of communication technologies affect the rationalization of fraudulent behaviors. The model is based on research about the rationalization of fraud, media capabilities, and computer-mediated deception. This investigation empirically tests this model by analyzing 459 Facebook advertisements and 1,896 surveys completed by university students. The findings indicate that the capabilities provided by communication technologies affect the extent to which media mask cues of deceit and dehumanize others. As a result, some media capabilities increase one's willingness to engage in fraudulent behaviors while other capabilities deter those actions. Media capabilities that mask cues of deceit and reduce social presence increase the inclination of individuals to rationalize fraudulent activities while media capabilities that expose cues of deceit and increase social presence deter individuals from rationalizing acts of fraud. Media offering greater capabilities for reprocessability and transmission velocity decrease the inclination to rationalize fraud whereas greater capabilities for anonymity, rehearsability, and parallelism increase the inclination to rationalize fraud. In contrast, symbol set variety did not significantly affect the inclination to rationalize fraud.

Concentration, Competence, Confidence, and Capture: An Experimental Study of Age, Interruption-based Technostress, and Task Performance
Stefan Tams, Jason B Thatcher, Varun Grover
The proliferation of information and communication technologies such as instant messenger has created ever more workplace interruptions that cause employee stress and productivity losses across the world. This growth in interruptions has paralleled another trend: the graying of the workforce, signifying that the labor force is aging rapidly. Insights from theories of stress and cognitive aging suggest that older people may be particularly vulnerable to the negative consequences of interruptions. Hence, this study examines whether, how, and why technology-mediated interruptions impact stress and task performance differently for older compared to younger adults. The study develops a mediated moderation model explaining why older people may be more susceptible to the negative impacts of technology-mediated interruptions than younger ones, in terms of greater mental workload, more stress, and lower performance. The model hypothesizes that age acts as a moderator of the interruption-stress relationship due to age-related differences in inhibitory effectiveness, computer experience, computer self-efficacy, and attentional capture. We refer to these age-related differences as Concentration, Competence, Confidence, and Capture, respectively, or the 4 C's. We tested our model through a laboratory experiment with a 2 x 2 x 2 mixed-model design, manipulating the frequency with which interruptions appear on the screen and their salience (e.g., reddish colors). We found that age acts as a moderator of the interruption-stress link due to differences in concentration, competence, and confidence, but not capture. Thus, this study contributes to IS research by elucidating explicitly the role of age in IS phenomena, especially interruption-based technostress.

Is More Information Better? An Economic Analysis of Group Buying Platforms
Hong Xu
Group buying, as a new form of e-commerce, has experienced fast development over the past few years. Group buying serves as a new promotion channel for local small to medium-sized companies, as well as providing customers with the opportunity to experience new products and services at deep discounts. We examine merchants' pricing strategies and consumers' purchase decisions when different types of information is available through a group buying platform. Consumers purchasing deals from group buying platforms face a high level of quality uncertainty, due to their lack of experience and information about the merchants on group buying platforms. The lack of face-to-face communication before redeeming the deals also intensifies the uncertainty between the transacting parties. Group buying platforms intend to alleviate such uncertainty by designing a rich user interface that contains various types of information about the merchants or the deals. We model the interactions between merchants and consumers under three cases with simple, moderate or complex information environment. We show that improving from simple information to moderate information is beneficial to merchants, but further improvement from moderate to complex information leads to a more intriguing effect on merchants' discount strategy. In particular, merchants with very high or very low quality have to offer higher discount under complex information than under moderate information, and therefore, are worse off when more information is provided. Our analysis shows that providing more information can hurt merchants under certain conditions, and we offer implications to merchants as well the group buying platforms on their information strategies.

From Placebo to Panacea: Studying the Diffusion of IT Management Techniques with Ambiguous Efficiencies - The Case of Capability Maturity Model
Saeed Akhlaghpour, Liette Lapointe
In light of the inherent shortcomings of single-perspective approaches in IT diffusion research, in this paper, we develop a multi-perspective framework for studying the diffusion of IT management techniques. The framework is then applied to explain the diffusion of Capability Maturity Model (CMM). This research contributes to the Information Systems theory by (a) illustrating how several different theoretical perspectives (i.e., forced-selection, efficient choice, fashion, and fad) can be used to explain an IT management innovation diffusion, (b) identifying the specific limitations of each perspective, and (c) demonstrating how these perspectives can be reconciled and yield a holistic understanding of the diffusion trajectory. Building on 20+ years of CMM research, the propositions of this paper shed more light on the underlying dynamics driving the adoption decision among software vendors, and will inform IS scholars and practitioners about the types of actions that can foster the dissemination of emerging IT management techniques.

Helpfulness of Online Review Content: The Moderating Effects of Temporal and Social Cues
Chuan Hoo Tan, Liqiang Huang, Weiling Ke, Kwok Kee Wei
This study advances our understanding of consumer evaluation of search product review content, which can vary in its concreteness, by considering contextual review cues that are often tagged to product review content. Anchoring on the construal level theory, we differentiate two forms of contextual review cue, namely, temporal cue (i.e., when the review was posted) and social cue (i.e., who posted the review), and posit their individual and joint moderation effects on the relationship between product review content and perceived review helpfulness. The experimental results reveal interesting insights. First, when temporal cue indicates near distance, concrete product review content is perceived as more helpful. By contrast, abstract reviews are perceived as more helpful when the temporal cue is distant. Second, social cue is non-instrumental in affecting the evaluation of concrete product review content; however, near social cue has bearing on the evaluation of abstract product review content. Third, we also find a significant joint effect of temporal and social cues on the relationship between product review concreteness and review helpfulness. The assessment of abstract reviewsí helpfulness is strengthened when both social and temporal cues reveal near psychological distance. This research contributes not only to the product review literature, by providing integrated understanding of product review (i.e., considering both content and contextual cues), but also to construal level theory, by identifying the moderating consequences of temporal and social cues as rooted in two dimensions of psychological distance.

Research in Information Systems: Intra-Disciplinary and Inter-Disciplinary Appproaches
Monideepa Tarafdar, Robert M. Davison
The deep embeddedness of Information Systems (IS) in many areas of human activity poses a dual challenge to the IS discipline: advancing an expanding disciplinary boundary that includes an increasing set of IS topics; and engaging with other disciplines in order to understand IS-enabled phenomena. An inability to meet these challenges could lead to conceptually stunted development of the IS discipline, missed opportunities to inform other disciplines and a failure to effectively contribute to solving the pressing problems of our time. We undertook this study to investigate both how IS research has addressed these challenges in the past and how it can continue to do so in the future. Drawing on the concept of knowledge-materialization through knowledge-creating practice, and based on approaches for disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge creation, we theorize four different types of knowledge contribution that IS researchers can produce, encompassing both an intra-disciplinary and an inter-disciplinary view. We then analyse a wide-ranging sample of research studies published in 176 papers in the AIS basket of eight journals to investigate the nature of their contribution vis-‡-vis these types. We find that the predominant types of knowledge contribution are intra-disciplinary, with relatively few inter-disciplinary contributions. Based on our analysis, we explain why each type of knowledge contribution is important to the IS discipline and provide guidance for IS scholars in planning their research strategies for these contributions. We comment on the implications of our study for IS scholars and for the vigour and growth of the IS discipline.

Re-Interpreting the Kuhnian Paradigm in Information Systems
John Mingers, Nik Hassan
The goal of this paper is to raise the level of discourse surrounding paradigms by drawing out a number of observations on how paradigms are interpreted in the IS field, and to reclaim the transformative potential of the Kuhnian paradigm concept in encouraging novel, interesting and relevant research and theorizing. After positioning the contribution of the Kuhnian paradigm and its significance in the philosophy of science, we describe the negative impacts of a research community's preoccupation with the epistemological sense of paradigm, which ignited within the organizational sciences decades of unnecessary ìparadigm wars' and a misplaced focus on methodology. We show how this epistemological rendering of paradigm, which is adopted by the IS field, differs from the opinions of well-known critics of Kuhn and how this view obscures the Kuhnian paradigm's potential for innovative research. To provide valuable insights into these issues, we introduce Masterman's interpretation of Kuhn's model, which Kuhn himself endorses, and unpack the paradigm concept into its metaphysical, sociological and artefactual components. Using Masterman's interpretation to highlight the primary meaning of Kuhn's paradigm concept as model problem-solution and exemplar, we describe how this multifaceted transformative view of paradigm benefits the IS field.

Demystifying the Influential IS Legends of "Positivism"
Mikko Siponen, Aggeliki Tsohou
Positivism has been used to establish a standard that IS research must meet to be scientific. According to such positivistic beliefs in IS, scientific research should: 1) be generalizable; 2) focus on stable independent variables; 3) have certain ontological assumptions; and 4) use surveys rather than qualitative methods. We argue that none of these were required by logical positivist philosophers. On the contrary, logical positivist philosophers regarded philosophizing in general and ontological considerations in particular as nonsense. The positivists' preferred empirical research method was not a survey, but rather a qualitative observation recorded by field notes. In addition, positivist philosophers neither required statistical nor non-statistical generalizability. Positivist philosophers also acknowledged the study of singular cases as being scientific. Our findings turn the influential and regulative IS beliefs regarding positivism upside down. Many research orientations (e.g., single-setting research, examination of change, qualitative research) that are deemed as unscientific in IS seem to be scientific according to logical positivism. In turn, what has been justified as scientific by positivism in IS (e.g., requirements by statistical or non-statistical generalizability, surveys, focus on fixed things, ontological views) either were not required by logical positivists or were regarded as nonsensical by logical positivists. Realizing that certain influential, taken-for-granted assumptions that underlie IS research are unwarranted, could have ground-breaking implications for future IS research.

Solving the Interpretational-Confounding and Interpretational-Ambiguity Problems of Formative Construct Modeling in Behavioral Research: Proposing a Two-Stage Fixed-Weight Redundancy Approach
Chao-Min Chiu, Jack Hsu, Ting Peng Liang, Paul Benjamin Lowry
Recently, formative measurements have received increasing attention in information systems research. However, current approaches to modeling formative constructs have potential validity problems and thus limited applicability. Here, we highlight two major problems in formative measurement:interpretational confounding and interpretational ambiguity,and propose a novel resolution. Interpretational confounding occurs when using the traditional free-estimation approach, because the weights of different formative indicators vary as the dependent variable changes, resulting in the distortion of the measurement weights of the focal formative construct and thus jeopardizing the generalizability of empirical tests. Another way to alleviate the interpretational-confounding issue is to include the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) construct in the path model (i.e., MIMIC-path). Unfortunately, this method has led to the second major problem of interpretational ambiguity, the existence of more than one potential explanation of the formative model. More specifically, reflective indicators in the MIMIC model can be viewed as (1) indicators of the MIMIC construct, (2) dependent variables of the formative construct, or (3) indicators of a reflective construct affected by independent variables (formative indicators). To resolve these issues, we propose a two-stage fixed-weight redundancy model (FWRM) approach. We demonstrate the applicability of the FWRM approach with a set of survey data. We conducted a simulation study evaluating the FWRM approach by comparing it with the commonly used free estimation and MIMIC-path methods. The results indicate that our FWRM approach can indeed improve the validity of formative construct modeling by mitigating confounding and ambiguity issues.

Pricing in C2C Sharing Platforms
Barrie Nault, Peter Angerer, Daniel Provin, Zimmermann Steffen
Sharing platforms such as Zilok.com enable the sharing of durable goods among consumers, and seek to maximize profits by charging transaction-based platform fees. We develop a model where consumers that are heterogeneous in their need to use a durable good decide whether to purchase and share (i.e., be a lender) or borrow (i.e., be a borrower), and a monopoly sharing platform decides on the platform fees. We find first that consumers with a greater need to use a durable good purchase and share, and that consumers with a lesser need borrow. Second, sharing platforms maximize profits only if the supply of a durable good matches demand: that is, the market must clear for platform fees to be profit maximizing. Third, the market-clearing condition requires that lender and borrower fees are classic strategic complements. Fourth, to maintain the market-clearing condition, sharing platforms have to increase their lender fee or decrease their borrower fee in response to increases in the sharing price, increases in usage capacity, and decreases in the purchase price of a durable good, and vice versa. These findings indicate that commonly applied one-sided pricing models in sharing platforms can be improved.

Don't even think about it! The effects of anti-neutralization, informational, and normative communication on information security compliance
Jordan Barlow, Merrill Warkentin, Dustin Ormond, Alan R. Dennis
Organizations use security education, training, and awareness (SETA) programs to counter internal security threats and promote compliance with information security policies. Yet, employees often use neutralization techniques to rationalize noncompliant behavior. We investigated three theory-based communication approaches that can be incorporated into SETA programs to help increase compliance behavior: (1) informational communication designed to explain why policies are important; (2) normative communication designed to explain that other employees would not violate policies; and (3) anti-neutralization communication designed to inhibit rationalization. We conducted a repeated measures factorial design survey using a survey panel of full-time working adults provided by Qualtrics. Participants received a SETA communication with a combination of one to three persuasion statements (informational influence, normative influence statement, and/or an anti-neutralization), followed by a scenario description that asked for their intentions to comply with the security policy. We found that both informational (weakly) and anti-neutralization communication (strongly) decreased violation intentions, but that normative communication had no effect. In scenarios where neutralizations were explicitly suggested to participants, anti-neutralization communication was the only approach that worked. Our findings suggest that we need more research on SETA techniques that include anti-neutralization communication to understand how it influences behavior beyond informational and normative communication.

Impact of the Information Technology Unit on Information Technology-Embedded Product Innovation
Monideepa Tarafdar, Huseyin Tanriverdi
Organizations increasingly embed IT into physical products to develop new product innovations. However, there is wide variance in the outcomes of the IT-embedded product (ITEP) innovation process. In this paper, we posit that the IT unit's involvement in the ITEP innovation process could positively influence the outcomes. ITEP innovations become part of complex ecosystems in which they interact with their developers, customers, and other ITEPs. These developments suggest new roles for IT units of organizations. Yet, there is dearth of theory explaining how the IT unit of a firm could contribute to the firm's development of ITEP innovations in ways to create customer value and improve firm performance. This paper seeks to address this gap. ITEP innovations present new challenges for organizations. This paper builds on complexity science to articulate the challenges and explain how the IT unit can increase an organization's capacity to cope with them. First, the paper adopts Wheeler's (2002) net-enabled business innovation model to structure the key stages of innovation that an organization goes through in developing new ITEPs. Second, the paper articulates IT-specific uncertainties and challenges entailed in each of the four stages. Third, the paper develops hypotheses explaining how the IT unit could increase the effectiveness of each stage by helping to address these uncertainties and challenges. Finally, the paper empirically tests and finds support for the hypotheses in a sample of 165 firms. The paper contributes to the literature on IT-enabled business innovations by developing and validating a new theoretical explanation of how IT units increase the effectiveness of the ITEP innovation process.

Revisiting the Impact of System Use on Task Performance: An Exploitative-Explorative System Use Framework
Heshan Sun, Ryan Wright, Jason Thatcher
How information systems (IS) impact task performance has attracted a significant amount of attention from information systems researchers and generated high interest among practitioners. A commonly accepted view is that the potential of information systems must be realized through system use. Nevertheless, existing findings regarding the impact of system use on task performance are not yet conclusive. We attributed this to the various conceptualizations of system use and the unclear mechanisms through which system use influences task performance. Thus, this research attempts to create a better understanding of how system use influences task performance. To this end, we developed an exploitative-explorative system use framework in order to reconcile the various conceptualizations of system use and to depict how both exploitative and explorative system use influences task performance through impacting task innovation, management control, and task productivity. We created an instantiation of the framework using USAGE (exploitative system use) and adaptive system use (ASU, explorative system use). We conducted two empirical studies involving two different populations and using two different technologies. The first study consisted of 212 experienced users of MS Office, whereas the second study employed 372 new users of a video-editing tool. Our findings offer insight into how exploitative system use and explorative system use independently and jointly influence task performance constructs and also have implications for research and practices.

When Institutional Logics Meet Information and Communication Technologies: Examining Hybrid Information Practices in Ghanaian Agriculture
Stan Karanasios, Mira Slavova
In this paper, we describe how changes in the availability of information artifacts - in particular, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) ñ among smallholder farmers in Ghana, led to a process of hybridization of information practices, and how this process could be linked to underlying institutional change. We use the notions of institutional carriers and activity systems to study the evolution of the prevailing 'small holder' institutional logic of Ghanaian agriculture toward an incoming 'value-chain' institutional logic concerned with linking farmers to output markets, improving the knowledge base in agriculture, and increasing its information intensity. We draw on a mixed-methods approach, including in-depth qualitative interviews, focus groups, observations, and detailed secondary quantitative data. We cultivate activity theory as a practice-based lens for structuring enquiry into institutional change. We find that information artifacts served to link the activities of farmers that were embedded in the smallholder logic with those of agricultural-development actors that promoted the value-chain logic. Hybridization occurred through the use of artifacts with different interaction modalities. In terms of conceptualizing change, our findings suggest that hybridization of the two logics may be an intermediary point in the long transition from the smallholder toward the value-chain logic.

How Social Media-Enabled Communication Awareness Enhances Project Team Performance
Jens Dibbern, Oliver Krancher, Paul Meyer
Project teams increasingly rely on computer-mediated communication. In this paper, we propose that communication within these teams benefits from a communication-awareness feature that summarizes communication at one common place. We argue that such a feature pays out specifically during action episodes, when team members engage in task work. We conducted two studies of 51 and 35 project teams to examine how the amount of communication during action episodes relates to team performance under low versus high communication awareness. In both studies, we technologically designed communication awareness as the availability of a feed, known from social media platforms, that displays all team-internal, computer-mediated communication. The results show that the communication-awareness feature makes communication during action episodes more beneficial, both in term of effectiveness and efficiency. Zooming into the temporal patterns of communication during action episodes further reveals that high-performing teams in the high-communication-awareness condition stick out by early and steady communication. Implications for current and future research on team communication and awareness support are discussed.

Evidence-Based Information Systems: A New Perspective and a Roadmap for Research Informed Practice
David Wainwright, Briony Oates, Helen Edwards, Sue Childs
Despite the increasing sophistication and quality of published work, the development of a cumulative body of knowledge and an evidence-base for Information Systems (IS) research still represents a major challenge. IS research is still predominantly undertaken by IS researchers for other IS researchers and not utilized to its full extent by IS practitioners or policy makers. We focus on this problem and express the need for a new evidence-based research perspective. It is argued that it is time to refocus the efforts of IS academics (and practitioners) to develop a new evidence-base for IS research whereby it can more routinely inform, develop, improve and support IS practice. We contribute to this debate by defining evidence-based practice (EBP), its relevance to IS, and the need to develop an evidence-based approach. We look in particular at its brief history, and its subsequent evolution, development and widespread acceptance in Medicine; making reference to recent arguments and critiques of EBP in other disciplines such as software engineering and management. We espouse the need to develop a similar evidence-based movement and infrastructure within the IS research and practitioner communities and then put forward a possible roadmap for the development of Evidence-Based Information Systems (EBIS) that comprises 9 key initiatives. We conclude our argument by stating that the current extent, severity and impact of IS failures are unacceptable, emphasizing the need for a new perspective for IS research that encourages and incorporates EBP as a guiding principle to inform better IS practice.

"Unblackboxing" Decision Makers' Interpretations of IS Certifications in the Context of Cloud Service Certifications
Alexander Benlian, Jens Lansing, Ali Sunyaev
IS literature has predominantly taken a black box perspective on IS certifications and studied the diverse set of their outcomes, such as signaling superior quality and increased customer trust. As a result, there is little understanding about the structure of certifications and its role in decision makers' evaluations of certifications to achieve these outcomes. However, idiosyncrasies of novel IT services such as cloud services create a need to "unblackbox" certifications and theorize about their constituting structural building blocks and structural elements, and to examine the key features that might lead to a more favorable evaluation of a certification by decision makers. To advance theory building on certifications, this article develops an empirically grounded typology of certifications' key structural building blocks and structural elements, and examines how they interpret substantive features within these elements. Using evidence from 20 interviews with decision makers of a wide range of industries in the context of cloud service certifications, we find that a decision maker's aggregate evaluation of a certification is a function of their interpretations of its features guided by cognitive interpretive schemas along six key structural elements contrasted with the decision makers' expectations regarding the certification's outcomes. This study contributes by conceptualizing certifications' necessary and sufficient elements, constructing a nascent theory on decision makers' evaluations of certifications, and illuminating the dynamics between certifications' structural elements and outcomes as a co-evolutionary process. We discuss implications for the certification literature and give managerial advice regarding the factors to consider when designing and evaluating certifications.

Theorizing the Multilevel Effects of Interruptions and the Role of Communication Technology
Shamel Addas, Alain Pinsonneault
Our understanding of how interrupting the work of an individual affects group outcomes and the role of communication technologies (CT) in shaping these effects is limited. Drawing upon coordination theory and the literatures on computer-mediated communication and interruptions, this paper develops a multilevel theory of work interruptions. It suggests that interruptions that target individuals can also affect other group members through various ripple effects and a cross-level direct effect. We also discuss how the usage of five CT capabilities during interruption episodes can moderate the impact of interruptions at the individual and group levels. Our theoretical model draws attention to the importance of examining the individual-to-group processes to better understand the impact of interruptions in group environments. Additionally, by accounting for the role of the use of CT capabilities during interruption episodes, our work contributes to both the interruptions literature, which dedicates scant attention to the interrupting media, and to IS research on media use and media effects.

Designing Social Nudges for Enterprise Recommendation Agents: An Investigation in the Business Intelligence Systems Context
Martin Kretzer, Alexander Maedche
According to behavioral economists, a "nudge" is an attempt to steer individuals toward making desirable choices without affecting their range of choices. We draw on this concept. We design and examine nudges that exploit social influence's effects to control individuals' choices. Although recommendation agent research provides numerous insights into extending information systems and assisting end-consumers, it lacks insights into extending enterprise information systems to assist organizations' internal employees. We address this gap by demonstrating how enterprise recommendation agents (ERAs) and social nudges can be used to tackle a common challenge that enterprise information systems face. That is, we are using an ERA to facilitate information (i.e., reports) retrieval in a business intelligence system. In addition, we are using social nudges to steer users toward reusing specific recommended reports rather than choosing between recommended reports randomly. To test the effects of the ERA and the four social nudges, we conduct a within-subjects lab experiment with 187 participants. We also conduct gaze analysis ('eye tracking') to examine the impact of participants' elaboration. The results of our logistic mixed-effects model show that the ERA and the proposed social nudges steer individuals toward certain choices. Specifically, the ERA steers users toward reusing certain reports. These theoretical findings also have high practical relevance and applicability: In an enterprise setting, the ERA allows employees to reuse existing resources (such as existing reports) more effectively across their organizations because employees can easier find the reports they actually need. This in turn prevents the development of duplicate reports.

A Tale of Two Deterrents: Considering the Role of Absolute and Restrictive Deterrence to Inspire New Directions in Behavioral and Organizational Security Research
Paul Benjamin Lowry, Robert Willison, Raymond Paternoster
This research-perspective article reviews and contributes to the literature that explains how to deter internal computer abuse (ICA), which is criminal computer behavior committed by organizational insiders. ICA accounts for a large portion of insider trading, fraud, embezzlement, the selling of trade secrets, customer privacy violations, and other criminal behaviors, all of which are highly damaging to organizations. Although ICA represents a momentous threat for organizations, and despite numerous calls to examine this behavior, the academic response has been lukewarm. However, a few security researchers have examined ICAís influence in an organizational context and the potential means of deterring it. However, the results of the studies have been mixed, leading to a debate on the applicability of deterrence theory (DT) to ICA. We argue that more compelling opportunities will arise in DT research if security researchers more deeply study its assumptions and more carefully recontextualize it. The purpose of this article is to advance a deterrence research agenda that is grounded in the pivotal criminological deterrence literature. Drawing on the distinction between absolute and restrictive deterrence and aligning them with rational choice theory (RCT), this paper shows how deterrence can be used to mitigate the participation in and frequency of ICA. We thus propose that future research on the deterrent effects of ICA should be anchored in a more general RCT, rather than in examinations of deterrence as an isolated construct. We then explain how adopting RCT with DT opens up new avenues of research. Consequently, we propose three areas for future research, which cover not only the implications for the study of ICA deterrence, but also the potential motivations for this type of offence and the skills required to undertake them.

'Computing' Requirements for Open Source Software: A Distributed Cognitive Approach
Xuan Xiao, Aron Lindberg, Sean Hansen, Kalle Lyytinen
Most requirements engineering (RE) research has been conducted in the context of structured and agile software development. Software, however, is increasingly developed in open source software (OSS) forms which have several unique characteristics. In this study, we approach OSS RE as a sociotechnical, distributed cognitive process where distributed actors 'compute' requirements ñ i.e., transform requirements-related knowledge into forms that foster a shared understanding of what the software is going to do and how it can be implemented. Such computation takes place through social sharing of knowledge and the use of heterogeneous artifacts. To illustrate the value of this approach, we conduct a case study of a popular OSS project, Rubinius - a runtime environment for the Ruby programming language - and identify ways in which cognitive workload associated with RE becomes distributed socially, structurally, and temporally across actors and artifacts. We generalize our observations into an analytic framework of OSS RE, which delineates three stages of requirements computation: excavation, instantiation, and testing-in-the-wild. We show how the distributed, dynamic, and heterogeneous computational structure underlying OSS development builds an effective mechanism for managing requirements. Our study contributes to sorely needed theorizing of appropriate RE processes within highly-distributed environments as it identifies and articulates several novel mechanisms that undergird cognitive processes associated with distributed forms of RE.

Sleight of Hand: Identifying Concealed Information by Monitoring Mouse-Cursor Movements
Jeffrey Jenkins, Jeff Proudfoot, Joe Valacich, Jay Nunamaker
Organizational members who conceal information about adverse behaviors, such as insider threat or noncompliance activities, present a substantial risk to that organization. Yet the task of identifying who is concealing information is extremely difficult, expensive, error-prone, and time-consuming. We propose a unique methodology for identifying concealed information: measuring people's mouse-cursor movements in online screening questionnaires. We present a specialized screening questionnaire based on the concealed information test. We then theoretically explain how mouse-cursor movements captured during this test differ between people concealing information and truth tellers. We empirically evaluate our hypotheses using an experiment during which people conceal information about a questionable act. While people completed the screening questionnaire, we simultaneously collected mouse-cursor movements and electrodermal activity the primary sensor used for polygraph examinations as an additional validation of our methodology. We found that mouse-cursor movements can significantly differentiate between people concealing information and people telling the truth. Mouse-cursor movements also can differentiate between people concealing information and truth tellers on a broader set of comparisons relative to electrodermal activity. Both mouse-cursor movements and electrodermal activity have the potential to identify concealed information, yet mouse-cursor movements yielded significantly fewer false positives. Our results demonstrate that analyzing mouse-cursor movements has promise for identifying concealed information. This methodology can be automated and deployed online for mass screening of individuals in a natural setting without the need for human facilitators, who can introduce bias into the results. Our approach further demonstrates that mouse-cursor movements can provide insight into the cognitive state of computer users.

An Activity Theory Approach to Modeling Dispatch-Mediated Emergency Response
Rohit Valecha, Raj Sharman, H. Raghav Rao, Shambhu Upadhyaya
Emergency response involves multiple local, state and federal communities of responders. These communities are supported by emergency dispatch agencies that share digital traces of task-critical information. However, the communities of responders are often an informal network of people, and lack structured mechanisms of information sharing. To standardize the exchange of task-critical information in communities of responders we develop a conceptual modeling grammar. We base the grammar on an Activity Theory perspective, and ground it in an analysis of emergency dispatch incident reports. The paper contributes to research in dispatch-mediated emergency response literature by (1) developing a framework of elements and relationships to support critical information flow within emergency communities of responders, (2) developing a conceptual modeling grammar for modeling emergency tasks in dispatch-mediated emergency response, and (3) implementing a prototype system to demonstrate the utility of the conceptual modeling grammar.

Never, Never Together Again: How Post-Purchase Affect Drives Consumer Outcomes within the Context of Online Consumer Support Communities
Ghiyoung Im, EunHee Park, Veda Storey, Richard Baskerville
Online support communities are popular for consumers of information technology products who might need help identifying or resolving a problem. Information technology products, in general, have their own needs and requirements. Prior research has focused on the intermediate benefits of online support communities to companies, such as knowledge contribution and community participation. This study, in contrast, investigates the less explored issue of value creation by online support communities with respect to consumer post-purchase outcomes. To do so, an affect (emotional) process model is developed to understand how customers' post-purchase outcomes of information technology products are influenced through cognitive and affective processes after a product failure. Special attention is paid to the roles of affect during the recovery process. An empirical assessment of the model uses two online support communities, with a netnography methodology employed for data collection. The results suggest that consumers' post-purchase outcomes are influenced by affect and regulation, not just cognition. Key influences emerge as the consumers' own problem appraisals and affective experiences, the consumers' social group, and regulation provided by company technicians and/or community experts.