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Forthcoming Papers


Understanding the Role of IS and Application Domain Knowledge on Conceptual Schema Problem Solving: A Verbal Protocol Study
Vijay Khatri, Iris Vessey
Abstract
One of the most neglected areas of Information Systems research is the role of the domain to which IS methods, tool, and techniques are applied, that is, the application domain. For example, little prior information systems (IS) or related research has examined how IS and application domain knowledge (ISDK and ADK, respectively) influence the solution of conceptual schema problem-solving tasks. In this research, we investigate the effects of both ISDK and ADK on two types of conceptual schema problem-solving tasks: schema-based and inferential. We used verbal protocol analysis to explore the roles that ISDK and ADK play in the problem-solving processes participants use when addressing these tasks. Key findings of our study are that for the two types of conceptual schema problem-solving tasks examined in this research, we discovered that ADK and ISDK have similar effects on problem-solving processes. That is, we found that for schema-based problem-solving tasks, participants used focused (depth-first) processes when the application domain was familiar as did participants with greater IS domain knowledge. We also found that for inferential problem-solving tasks, participants used exploratory (breadth-first) processes when the application domain was familiar as did participants with greater IS domain knowledge. We then show how cognitive psychology literature on problem solving can help explain the effects of ISDK and ADK, thus providing the theoretical foundations for analyzing the roles of each type of knowledge in the process of IS problem solving.


Culture, Conformity and Emotional Suppression in Online Reviews
Yili Hong, Ni Huang, Gordon Burtch, Chunxiao Li
Abstract
This study examines the cultural background of consumers as an antecedent of online review characteristics. We theoretically propose and empirically examine the effect of cultural background, specifically individualism (versus collectivism), on the tendency of consumers to conform to prior opinion and the emotionality of the review text. We also examine how conformity and emotionality relate to review helpfulness. Our hypotheses are tested using a unique dataset that combines online restaurant reviews from TripAdvisor with measures of individualism–collectivism values. Our econometric analyses reveal that consumers from a collectivist culture are less likely to deviate from the average prior rating and to express emotion in their reviews. Moreover, those reviews that exhibit high conformity and intense emotions are perceived to be less helpful. We also present several important implications for the management of online review platforms in light of these findings, which reflect the previously unidentified drivers of systematic differences in the characteristics of online reviews.


Overconfidence in Phishing Email Detection
Jingguo Wang, Yuan Li, H. Raghav Rao
Abstract
Phishing is a fraud that causes significant financial loss and erodes trust in online business communications. This study examines overconfidence in phishing email detection and tests the impacts of five antecedents on overconfidence in judging actual emails. Overconfidence, where judgmental confidence exceeds actual performance in decision-making, is believed to lead to one’s adoption of risky behavior in an uncertain situation. The aim of this study is to recognize mechanisms that reduce such overconfidence. A survey experiment on 600 subjects was carried out to collect empirical data for the study, in which each subject judged a set of randomly selected phishing emails and authentic business emails. Two metrics of overconfidence (i.e., overprecision and overestimation) were examined. Results show that of the antecedents, cognitive effort decreases overconfidence while variability in attention allocation, dispositional optimism, and familiarity with the business entities in the emails all increase overconfidence in phishing email detection. The effect of perceived self-efficacy of detecting phishing emails on overconfidence is marginal. In addition, all confidence beliefs poorly predict detection accuracy and poorly explain its variance, highlighting the issue of relying on judgmental confidence to guide one’s behavior in phishing detection. Mechanisms to reduce overconfidence are discussed.


Enhancing Analysts’ Mental Models for Improving Requirements Elicitation: A Two-Stage Theoretical Framework and Empirical Results
Padmal Vitharana, Mariam Fatemeh Zahedi, Hemant K. Jain
Abstract
While a large volume of research on Requirement Elicitation (RE) has emerged, a deeper understanding of three aspects could contribute to significant improvements in RE: (1) insights about the role and impacts of support tools in the RE process; (2) the impact of using support tools in multiple stages of the RE process; and (3) a clear focus on the multiplicity of perspectives in assessing RE outcomes. To understand how the use of support tools could improve RE, we rely on the theoretical lens of mental models to develop a dynamic conceptual model and argue that analysts form mental models (MMs) of the system during RE and these MMs impact their outcome performance. We posit that analysts’ MMs can be enhanced by using a knowledge-based repository (KBR) of components and services embodying domain knowledge specific to the target application during two key stages of RE, resulting in improved RE outcomes. The RE outcomes were measured from user and analyst perspectives. The focus of the knowledge-based component repository used in this research was on insurance claim processing and was developed in collaboration with a multi-national company. The repository served as the support tool in RE in a multi-period lab experiment with multiple teams of analysts. The results supported the conceptualized model, and showed the significant impacts of such tools in supporting analysts and their performance outcomes at two stages of RE


Got phished? Internet Security and Human Vulnerability
Sanjay Goel, Kevin J Williams, Ersin Dincelli
Abstract
A leading cause of security breaches is a basic human vulnerability: our susceptibility to deception. Hackers exploit this vulnerability by sending phishing emails inducing users to click on malicious links that then download malware or trick the victim into revealing personal confidential information to the hacker. Past research has focused on human susceptibility to generic phishing emails or individually targeted spear phishing emails. This study addresses the role of broad contextualization of emails for targeted groups to understand their relative impact on susceptibility to phishing. The study manipulated the framing and content of email messages, and tested the effects on user susceptibility to phishing. Phishing emails were constructed to elicit either the fear of losing something valuable (e.g., course registrations, tuition assistance) or the anticipation of gaining something desirable (e.g., iPad, gift card, social networks). Context of the email was designed to manipulate human psychological weaknesses such as greed, social needs, etc. Fictitious (benign) emails were sent to 7,225 undergraduate students and responses were recorded. Results revealed that contextualizing messages to appeal to recipients’ psychological weaknesses increases their susceptibility to phishing. The fear of losing or anticipation of gaining something valuable increases susceptibility to deception and vulnerability to phishing. The results of our study provide important contributions to IS research, including a theoretical framework based on the heuristic-systematic processing model to study the susceptibility of users to deception. We demonstrate through our experiment that several situational factors do, in fact, alter the effectiveness of phishing attempts.


Overconfidence in Phishing Email Detection
Jingguo Wang, Yuan Li, H. Raghav Rao
Abstract
Phishing is a fraud that causes significant financial loss and erodes trust in online business communications. This study examines overconfidence in phishing email detection and tests the impacts of five antecedents on overconfidence in judging actual emails. Overconfidence, where judgmental confidence exceeds actual performance in decision-making, is believed to lead to one's adoption of risky behavior in an uncertain situation. The aim of this study is to recognize mechanisms that reduce such overconfidence. A survey experiment on 600 subjects was carried out to collect empirical data for the study, in which each subject judged a set of randomly selected phishing emails and authentic business emails. Two metrics of overconfidence (i.e., overprecision and overestimation) were examined. Results show that of the antecedents, cognitive effort decreases overconfidence while variability in attention allocation, dispositional optimism, and familiarity with the business entities in the emails all increase overconfidence in phishing email detection. The effect of perceived self-efficacy of detecting phishing emails on overconfidence is marginal. In addition, all confidence beliefs poorly predict detection accuracy and poorly explain its variance, highlighting the issue of relying on judgmental confidence to guide one's behavior in phishing detection. Mechanisms to reduce overconfidence are discussed.


Culture, Conformity and Emotional Suppression in Online Reviews
Yili Hong, Ni Huang, Gord Burtch, Chunxiao Li
Abstract
This study examines the cultural background of consumers as an antecedent of online review characteristics. We theoretically propose and empirically examine the effect of cultural background, specifically individualism (versus collectivism), on the tendency of consumers to conform to prior opinion and the emotionality of the review text. We also examine how conformity and emotionality relate to review helpfulness. Our hypotheses are tested using a unique dataset that combines online restaurant reviews from TripAdvisor with measures of individualism-collectivism values. Our econometric analyses reveal that consumers from a collectivist culture are less likely to deviate from the average prior rating and to express emotion in their reviews. Moreover, those reviews that exhibit high conformity and intense emotions are perceived to be less helpful. We also present several important implications for the management of online review platforms in light of these findings, which reflect the previously unidentified drivers of systematic differences in the characteristics of online reviews.