Systems implementation is an important topic, and numerous studies have been conducted to identify determinants of success. Among organizational factors that can have an impact on success, top management support and training are two of the most extensively studied variables. While the positive influence of both of these organizational factors is generally recognized, not all empirical evidence is supportive. Some researchers attribute the inconsistent findings to moderators such as task interdependence. Other researchers contend that the wide-ranging correlations observed in different studies are caused by nothing but statistical artifacts. Still another reason for the inconsistent results could be how the two variables are modeled. I meta-analyzed thirty prior studies that examine the effect of both top management support and training. The results support both independent variables having a moderate positive effect on implementation success. Additionally, they suggest that the most plausible model is one where training partially mediates the effect of top management support. Finally, the preponderance of evidence indicates that task interdependence does not moderate the effect of either top management support or training. Instead, the role of task interdependence is similar to that of top management support and training: as an independent variable with a direct effect on implementation success.
Hwang, M. I. (2014). Disentangling the Effect of Top Management Support and Training on Systems Implementation Success: A Meta-Analysis. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 35, pp-pp. https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.03502