Communications of the Association for Information Systems

Forthcoming Papers

Forthcoming papers have been accepted for publication at the Communications of the Association for Information Systems and are listed below in order of acceptance date. Copies of unedited manuscripts can either be obtained by clicking the manuscript title or contacting the corresponding authors listed below.

Note that the decision to provide a copy rests with the authors, not with the Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

The manuscripts listed here will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proofs before they are published in their final form. During the production process errors may be discovered, which could affect the content. All legal disclaimers that apply to the Communications of the Association for Information Systems pertain. For a definitive version of the works listed here, please check for their appearance online at http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/.

Mapping the Landscape of Health Information Exchange (HIE) Networks in the United States

Sun, Zuan (zsun@whitworth.edu)


Since the 1990s, there has been ongoing investment in the development of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) in the United States. However, the diffusion of HIE innovation has been disappointingly slow. One explanation for this is that HIE innovation is affected by multiple stakeholder domains, with policy, technical, and social positions that can be at cross purposes to each other. Understanding the pace of diffusion must therefore account for structural differences in kinds of HIE networks, but there is a gap in existing research on this dilemma. In Information Systems (IS), research has focused on individual instantiations of HIEs. In the domain of health policy, research has summarized different forms of HIE networks without applying theoretical lenses to explore structural differences among them. Further, for HIE value research, there is no consensus on measurement criteria because of these divergent motivations for HIE instantiations. To that end, this paper has three objectives: first, to describe the current landscape of HIE networks in the United States from an organizational perspective; second, to propose a framework for future research to address structural differences among HIE networks; and third, to demonstrate how network type acts as a boundary condition for measuring exchange behaviors and outcomes.

Blockchain Won’t Kill the Banks: Why Disintermediation Doesn’t Work in International Trade Finance

Radszuwill, Sven (sven.radszuwill@uni-bayreuth.de)


In the financial services industry, blockchain is assumed to have significant impacts. From research and practice, we observe two main paradigms of how organizations interact with blockchain. First, organizations use blockchain to optimize existing processes (blockchain-based business process optimization – BPO). Second, organizations use blockchain to disrupt existing processes, foster disintermediation, and enable disruptive business models (blockchain-based business process disruption – BPD). However, scientific research that evaluates its de facto potential is scarce. We bridge this gap by following a design science research approach aiming at a blockchain-based business process re-engineering (BPRE) for a letter of credit that combines the advantages of BPO and BPD. We conduct three design cycles and develop three artefacts: a BPO, a BPD, and a BPRE approach. Our BPRE approach combines the advantages of partial disintermediation, i.e. increased efficiency and transparency, with the advantages of intermediaries, i.e. process flexibility, provision of liquidity and mediation of dispute.

Not Your Typical Leader? How Perceptions of CIOs Compare to Other Members of the Top Management Teame

Gonzalez, Paola A (paola.gonzalez@dal.ca)


This paper examines perceptual profiles of Chief Information Officers (CIO) relative to other members of the Top Management Team (TMT). The profile of CIOs reveals that they are perceived as less authoritative and less socially adept, important traits for strategic leadership. CIOs are also perceived to have less in common with successful business leaders than either CFOs or CMOs. These findings highlight important differences in the way that CIOs are perceived relative to their top management team colleagues and shed light on a possible reason for some of the challenges that CIOs frequently face in organizations.

Motivation to Participate in Professional Development in Technologically Intensive Work Environments

Klaus, Tim (tim.klaus@tamucc.edu)


Maintaining professional competency in an environment of rapid technological innovation may seem to be an insurmountable task, where new technologies often become obsolete before technology professionals are able to master them. Although research has established that challenging work assignments affect professional motivation, research has also established that overly-challenging work assignments are de-motivating. Of particular interest are the calls for research to examine the relationship between the Technical Updating Climate (TUC), and learning motivation in the context of professional development activity. Data were collected from 174 IT professionals, who are exemplars of professionals working in such environments. Evidence was found to support the ability of Locus of Control, Self-efficacy, and Technical Updating Climate to predict 43% of variation in the IT professional’s motivation to participate in professional development. The research model proposed by this study has demonstrated a strong ability to explain motivation to engage in professional development in technologically intensive work contexts. Furthermore, the Technical Updating Climate was successfully operationalized and validated as both an instance of positive climate, and as an organizational climate.

Digital Innovation and Business Process Management: Opportunities and Challenges as Perceived by Practitioners

vom Brocke, Jan (jan.vom.brocke@uni.li )


This report summarizes a large-scale online workshop series focusing on the connection between digital innovation and business process management (BPM). The motivation behind our format was to complement the primarily conceptual claims in this field of research with in-depth insights from organizational practice. The format covered four consecutive one-hour workshops, each involving an average number of 120 practitioners and several academics. Each workshop shed light on specific aspects that appear important in the context of digital innovation and BPM. We collected data by means of discussions during the sessions, as well as from two surveys completed respectively before and after the workshop. Based on our findings, we identify three research directions to advance research on the intersection of digital innovation and BPM. We suggest (1) exploring the role of BPM in digital innovation, (2) scoping digital innovation activities within BPM projects, and (3) aligning organizational structures to support BPM-driven digital innovation activities. We point to several concrete avenues for future empirical research in this field.

COVID-19 and Caregiving IS Researchers: In the same storm, but not in the same boat

Van Osch, Wietske (Wietske.van-osch@hec.ca)


In early 2020, reports emerged about the negative effects of COVID-19 on the productivity of female researchers who were taking care of their families during the pandemic, while male researchers spent their time in lockdown2 writing more papers and increasing their productivity. We wondered if the pandemic was affecting caregivers (mostly female) in the Information Systems (IS) discipline in the same way. If it was, we hoped to be able to suggest what actions caregivers might take in response. As an approximate way of distinguishing caregivers from non-caregivers in our analysis, we used gender. The results of our analysis are mixed, but they do suggest that COVID-19 has had some negative impacts on IS researchers who are caregivers. We offer several recommendations to caregiving IS researchers for mitigating the effects of the pandemic on their professional lives.

Overdue Diligence: Questioning the Promise, Not the Premise, of Analytics

Andriole, Stephen John (stephen.andriole@villanova.edu)


The number of emerging business technologies seems endless – with endless possibilities about the impact they will have on business performance. Who doesn’t want more competitiveness and profitability? If a new technology – like big data analytics – can deliver superior perform-ance, why not invest in data scientists, algorithms and centers of excellence? Not so fast: the Gartner Group reports that over 85% of big data analytics projects fail (Gartner, 2017). A recent McKinsey survey found that only 8 percent of respondents have been able to scale analytics beyond limited and isolated cases (Fleming, et al., 2018). A root cause analysis explains why so many analytics projects fail. We discovered at least six baskets of problems that threaten analytics projects: data, modeling, tools, talent, management and culture. The path to least damages exists. It’s as much a corporate mirror as it is a due diligence checklist. It‘s a diagnostic tool that lists organizational ailments, symptoms and diagnostic questions. It’s everyone’s chance to diagnose a company’s chances for analytics success – or understand why there’s little or no hope.

Using ‘Panel Reports’ to Advance Scholarly Discourse: A Change in Editorial Policy and Guidelines for Authors of ‘Panel Reports’

Wessel, Lauri (wessel@europa-uni.de)


‘Panel reports’ reflect a particular category of submissions that can be made to the Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS). As stated online, panel reports differ from traditional research papers in that “CAIS is open to publishing reports of panels, debates, symposia, workshops and similar events. Such reports have to clearly position the matter of discussion at the event, highlight the relevance of event and topic and outline the different views on the topic that emanated at the events.” (https://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/panel_reports.pdf). While this definition has persisted for some time and still holds true, it leaves room for interpretation what constitutes a contribution and how one knows that a particular paper has made enough of one. The purpose of this editorial is to provide interpretation and elaboration of these principles based on our collective experience with such reports.

Debate Section Editorial Note: Five Ethical Issues in the Big Data Analytics Age

Venable, John (John.Venable@cbs.curtin.edu.au)

Five Ethical Issues in the Big Data Analytics Age

Richardson, Sandra (srchdsn@memphis.edu)


The changes in technology that have allowed for unprecedented capturing, transmitting, storing, and analysis of data have created many opportunities for organizations and society through the emergence of big data analytics. However, in conjunction with the promises of big data analytics, are concerns about the ethical uses and application of the analysis of big data. In this debate, we develop a series of questions that researchers and practitioners should consider regarding privacy, accuracy, property, accessibility, and society, through illuminating inputs, processes, and outputs of big data analytics. Our aim is to begin a dialogue within the information systems discipline related to the ethical issues associated with big data analytics, and how, we, as IS researchers, teachers, and practitioners, can ensure responsible and appropriate use of data and its analysis, interpretation, and application.

Big Data Analytics: Ethical Dilemmas, Power Imbalances and Design Science Research

Myers, Michael (m.myers@auckland.ac.nz)

From PAPA to PAPAS and Beyond: Dealing with Ethics in Big Data, AI and other Emerging Technologies

Stahl, Bernd (bstahl@dmu.ac.uk)


The acronym PAPA, which stands for privacy, accuracy, property, and accessibility has long been part of the discussion of ethical issues in information systems. While all of the four constituent components remain relevant, technical progress and the integration of technology in organisations and society in the intervening almost 40 years call for a reconsideration of the acronym. In response to Richardson et al.’s proposal to add the term “society”, this paper suggests that an extension of the acronym in more than one dimension would be useful. This includes the dimension of stakeholder, which can be individuals, organisations or society. It could include the stage of systems use, including input, processing and output. The third dimension is the ethical issue, which still includes PAPA but can be supplemented with others, such as bias, power distribution and others. The paper therefore suggests that we not only need to extend PAPA to PAPAS but that we need to go beyond a list of ethical issues to capture the richness and complexity in which ethics and information systems interact.

Not Your PAPAS’ Problem— Users and Ethical Use Cases in the Big Data Analytics Age: A Rejoinder to Richardson, Petter, and Carter

Markus, Lynne (MLMARKUS@bentley.edu)


Richardson, Petter, and Carter have courageously challenged the IS field to address the ethical concerns surrounding the use of Big Data Analytics. We need to take up their challenge. However, embracing and educating ethical principles alone will not suffice to prevent abuses, because the problems involve multiple actors, and because value conflicts are inevitable. To accomplish the ambitious goals that Richardson et al. have set for us, IS scholars need to develop an extensive body of knowledge about the myriad and diverse circumstances—use cases, if you will—in which ethical concerns arise in the development, deployment, and use of Big Data Analytics.

CAIS Rebuttal for Five Ethical Issues in the Big Data Analytics Age by Richardson et al.

Loebbecke, Claudia (claudia.loebbecke@uni-koeln.de)


While applauding Richardson et al.’s (2019) efforts to draw attention to ethical considerations that arise in developing and deploying BDA-based systems, we provide a critique in the spirit of furthering discussion on these important themes. Our critique points to the distinction between BDA-based systems and AI-based systems; the extant, related IS literature concerning ethical issues; whether extending established frameworks may actually weaken the IS field’s contribution; privacy considerations; regulatory requirements, and ethical design considerations.

Does PAPAS Know Best? A Continuation and Call for Discussion

Richardson, Sandra (srchdsn@memphis.edu)


In this article, we consider the insights and ideas provided by the four responses provided to our original article, “Five Ethical Issues in the Big Data Analytics Age.” We discuss the opportunity we have as scholars to view ethics as an ongoing conversation and encourage other scholars to continue the discourse related to ethics as we consider advances in information systems.

The Routinization of Open Source Project Engagement: The Case of Open Source Risk Management Routines

Germonprez, Matt (germonprez@gmail.com)


As the organizational use of open source software increases, the routinization of open source project engagement is inevitable to manage new open source risks. We explore the Software Package Data Exchange (SPDX®) standard as a key open source product for routinizing the work of open source risk management. The development and subsequent adoption of SPDX raise the questions of how organizations participate in SPDX to routinize open source work to better integrate with their own open source risk management routines, how organizations make sense of SPDX when improving their own open source risk management routines, and how a community benefits from the experiential knowledge that is contributed back by organizational early-adopters. To explore these questions, we conducted a single-case, multicomponent field study, connecting with members of organizations that participated in the development of SPDX and later employed SPDX in their own organizations. The results of our research contribute to understanding the routinization of open source project engagement by observing organizational commitments to routinize aspects of open source risk management through communal interactions, organizationally specific interpretations, and deployments.

TRIPBAM: creating digital value at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic

Pigni, Federico (federico.pigni@grenoble-em.com)


TRIPBAM pioneered automated clustered rate monitoring in the hotel industry. As the technology startup was readying for a successful exit that would reward founders, employees and investors for their success, the COVID-19 pandemic hit. The case chronicles TRIPBAM’s leadership’s fast reaction and discusses the strategic initiatives the firm put in place to set itself up for a return to growth post-crisis.

Managers’ Responses to Online Reviews for Improving Firm Performance: A Text Analytics Approach

Deng, Tianjie (Tianjie.Deng@Du.edu)


In the era of electronic word-of-mouth, firms are under the pressure to respond to online reviews strategically to maintain and enhance the reputation and financial viability. Guided by service recovery theory and affect theory, this study develops a framework that classifies management responses to seek actionable opportunities to improve firm performance. Using 37,896 managerial responses to online reviews for 390 hotels in three U.S cities, we employ text mining techniques such as sentiment analysis and topic modeling to develop an “AAAA” framework that classifies the responses into four categories: Acknowledgment, Account, Action, and Affect. We evaluate the effectiveness of this framework on subsequent reviews and hotel revenue. Among the management response characteristics, we find that Acknowledgment and Action are significantly associated with future review ratings. The relationships between these characteristics and hotel revenue can be further moderated by hotel class. This study provides implications on how to effectively utilize firm resources to manage responses to online consumer reviews toward increased financial performance.

Motivational Tiered Assessment: A New Grading Approach for Motivating Information Systems Students

Serva, Mark (servam@udel.edu)


Grades are meant to be a metric of a student's learning, and academia places a huge weight on them (Beatty, 2004). As a form of assessment, however, grades alone do not provide room for feedback and further student development. This paper offers a new direction to information systems (IS) programs to improve student motivation and the assessment of student learning—motivational tiered assessment (MTA)—that proposes to overcome these concerns. A tiered approach to learning allows students to choose the level of effort and commitment they want to apply, and assesses students’ competence based on the performance outcome they choose to achieve by meeting a specific set of pre-determined specifications and expectations. We first explain how MTA works. We then delineate how the new system differs from the points-based grading system, which is commonly used across academia. We conclude by presenting three class examples that illustrate the application of MTA across an information systems curriculum.

Information Systems Curriculum Analysis for the MaCuDE project

Lyytinen, Kalle (kalle@case.edu)

Writing A Teaching Case and Teaching Note: A Reference Guide

Sipior, Janice (janice.sipior@villanova.edu)


Writing a teaching case and teaching note are different from writing a research article. This guide explains what is involved in writing a good teaching case and accompanying teaching note. More specifically, it describes how to increase the teaching value of a case by linking it to pertinent concepts or theories, how to make a case more appealing to students through contextual nuances, and what to consider in writing a useful teaching note. Given the increased interest in writing teaching cases, this manuscript is a comprehensive update of an earlier CAIS paper written solely by the third author. It is our hope that this guide will help enable and not unduly constrain IS scholars who wish to bring realistic and helpful real life examples from our field to our students.

Effects of Item-ordering on Reproducibility in Information Systems Online Survey Research

Wilson, E. Vance (vancewilson@gmail.com)


Online survey applications offer a number of options for item administration, including approaches in which the order of item presentation is completely or partially randomized for each subject. Vendors claim individual randomization eliminates key sources of method bias that can impact reproducibility. Yet little empirical evidence exists to directly support this claim, and it is difficult to evaluate based on existing research because item-ordering methodologies are underreported and the reporting that does occur frequently is ambiguous. This paper investigates the effects of item-ordering on reproducibility in IS online survey research through a comprehensive comparison of five prominent item-ordering approaches: Individually randomized, static grouped-by-construct, static intermixed, individually randomized grouped-by-construct blocks containing static items, and static grouped-by-construct blocks containing individually-randomized items. We find significant, overarching differences among these approaches that can threaten reproducibility of research findings. These differences appear across the measures we studied, including item and construct means, reliability and construct validity statistics, serial effects, and subjects’ fatigue and frustration resulting from the survey-taking process. Our findings support a call for several key changes in reporting and use of item-ordering approaches that are especially relevant to IS online survey research.

Actions Lead to Results: How the Behaviors of Information Systems Professionals Influence the Success of Information Systems Departments

Karimikia, Hadi (hadi.karimikia@mu.ie)


The growing complexity of systems, the increasing intensity of their use, and the greater prominence of technology in supporting organizational activities has meant that information systems (IS) professionals in organizations have to go beyond offering routine task-related support when working with their non-IS colleagues. To be seen as being effective, IS professionals have to carry out empathic behaviors such as sharing their IT knowledge with their non-IS colleagues and taking the initiative to minimize inconveniences during IS projects. Drawing from the concept of organizational citizenship behavior, we develop a multilevel research model to examine how behaviors performed by IS professionals influence the effectiveness of IS departments. Using data from more than 1,000 respondents working in the global finance industry, the results of both cross-level and unit-level analyses support our arguments. The results deepen our understanding of the role of IS professionals as being intimately involved in supporting post-adoption IS use and digitally empowering business units, while also performing their traditional roles.

Looking Beyond Membership: A Simulation Study of Market Entry Strategies for Two-Sided Platforms Under Competition

Haurand, Michelle (m.haurand@uni-bielefeld.de)


Implementing a proper market entry strategy is a necessity for successfully establishing a two-sided digital platform. Following the right strategy becomes even more crucial if a competing platform already exists in the targeted market: It is more difficult to reach critical mass because users flock to the already established, larger platform due to network effects, resulting in a potential winner-take-all situation. While previous research proposes strategies, it does not discuss how to find the right strategy. This paper introduces an agent-based market simulation for comprehensively evaluating alternative strategies under competition, that is, not only with regard to platform adoption for the entrant but also taking into account transactions, earnings, and weakening the incumbent. Through an example case parameterized with empirical data, it illustrates the application of the model. The findings suggest that a comprehensive evaluation of market entry strategies beyond just looking at membership figures is necessary because different strategies can be the most promising one with regard to platform growth of the entrant, weakening the incumbent, and for boosting the entrant’s transactions and earnings.

Enterprise Architecture Practice Under a Magnifying Glass: Linking Artifacts, Activities, Benefits and Blockers

Kotusev, Svyatoslav (kotusev@kotusev.com)


Enterprise architecture (EA) is a collection of artifacts describing an organization from an integrated business and IT perspective intended to improve business and IT alignment. EA artifacts can be very diverse in nature and have different use cases in disparate organizational activities. Previous studies have identified numerous benefits and challenges of establishing EA practice. However, most existing studies discuss the benefits and problems of EA practice in general without relating them to any particular activities constituting EA practice. In order to address this gap, this study analyzes the benefits and blockers associated with specific EA-related activities and respective artifacts. Based on 18 interviews with practicing architects, we identify eight consistent activity areas constituting EA practice. Each of these activity areas essentially represents a separate “story” in the context of EA practice and implies certain activities supported by some EA artifacts leading to specific benefits often impeded by some blockers. These eight activity areas provide a more detailed understanding of EA practice than the one offered by the current EA literature. Moreover, our findings indicate that EA practice should not be viewed as some homogeneous organizational activity, while EA should not be conceptualized simply as a unified blueprint for information systems. We also argue for the need to rethink the very terms “enterprise architecture” and “EA practice” which appear to be oversimplified and unsuitable for an in-depth analysis of EA practice. This study has significant implications for both research and practice.

The Power of Electronic Channels and Electronic Political Efficacy: Electronic Participation Discourse

Yao, Yurong (yyao@suffolk.edu)


Electronic participation (e-participation) has become an increasingly important phenomenon. Drawing from the information system success model and political efficacy, we built a research model that investigates how government feedback quality, information quality, and channel quality associated with an e-participating channel can affect people’s electronic political efficacy, which, in turn, can influence users’ post-adoption attitudes and behaviors. We also explored the relationship between offline political efficacy and electronic political efficacy. Based on the data collected from a survey, the results demonstrate that electronic political efficacy is distinct from offline political efficacy though the latter influences the former one. Four channel features, government feedback quality, information quality, media richness, and social presence of citizens can affect electronic political efficacy, which in turn has a positive influence on e-participation continuance intention and positive word of mouth. Government feedback quality also negatively moderates the impact of offline political efficacy on electronic political efficacy. This study provides useful insights for both researchers and practitioners on the power of electronic channels in electronic participation in public discourse.

The After Times: Desire to Continue with Distance Learning Post Pandemic

Van Slyke, Craig (vanslyke@latech.edu)


The growth of distance learning, already a topic of interest among higher education administrators and faculty, took on new significance during the COVID-19 pandemic when face-to-face classes worldwide abruptly shifted online. Many students who had never taken classes online were forced to either engage in distance learning or withdraw from their classes. An interesting question arises from this situation – Will these students continue to take classes online when distance learning is no longer a requirement? In this paper, we investigate factors that may influence college students’ intentions to continue with distance learning once they are no longer required to do so. We develop a model based on Social Cognitive Theory and Social Cognitive Career Theory and test that model using data from a survey of 525 college students who were taking distance learning classes. Results indicate that personal and environmental factors drive intentions to continue with distance learning through their impact on distance learning perceived performance and satisfaction. Our findings hold implications for practice and future research.

Artificial Intelligence in Business: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

Nguyen, Quynh (quynh.nguyen@stockton.edu)


The rise of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies creates promising research opportunities for the information systems (IS) discipline. Through the application of Latent Semantic Analysis, this study examines the correspondence between key themes in the academic and practitioner discourse on AI. Our findings suggest that the majority of business academic research has focused on the design and application of early AI technologies, while practitioner interest has been more diverse. We examine these differences in the context of the socio-technical continuum and relate existing literature on AI to core IS research areas. In so doing, we identify existing research gaps and propose future research directions for IS scholars related to AI and organizations, AI and markets, AI and groups, AI and individuals, and AI development are also provided.

Exploring incentives and challenges for Cybersecurity Intelligence Sharing (CIS) across Organizations: A Systematic Review

Kolini, Farzan (f.kolini@auckland.ac.nz)


Cybersecurity Intelligence Sharing (CIS) has gained significance as an organizational function to protect critical information assets, manage cybersecurity risks, and improve cybersecurity operations. However, few studies have synthesized accumulated scholarly knowledge on CIS practices across disciplines. Synthesizing the pertinent literature through a structured literature review, we investigate the incentives and challenges that influence organizations around adopting CIS practices. We use an overarching TOE framework to categorize these factors and propose a theoretical framework to establish common ground for future studies. We also present a holistic and inclusive definition of cybersecurity intelligence. We found 46 papers on the topic of CIS published in different disciplines and analyzed them to answer our research questions. We identified 35 factors that are classified according to the TOE framework. This review paper facilitates further theory development by highlighting an overview of theories that can be used as bases for CIS studies, suggesting future directions, providing a reference source, and developed a reference CIS framework for IS scholars.

Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) In Information Systems Research: Status Quo, Guidelines, and Future Directions

Mattke, Jens (jens.mattke@uni-bamberg.de)


Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) allows researchers to study how configurations of conditions lead to outcomes and thereby create rich explanations of the dynamics of complex digital phenomena. To advance a discussion on QCA in the Information Systems (IS) discipline, this paper introduces the fundamental concepts of QCA and offers guidelines for authors on how to apply QCA to advance IS research. We also provide checklists for reviewers of QCA papers. We illustrate the application of our guidelines through two exemplar studies. In exemplar study 1, we focus on IT-business strategic alignment to study the influence of different forms of alignment on firm performance. Exemplar study 2 uses the perspective of the integrated technology acceptance model to explain an individual’s intention to use a digital assistant. The contrasting results of both studies highlight how to use QCA to derive robust and reproducible results. By doing so, we advance the goal of encouraging IS scholars to use QCA for developing sophisticated models that provide accurate depictions of real-world IS phenomena.

Ethical Behavior of Firms and B2C E-commerce Diffusion:Exploring the Mediating Roles of Customer Orientation and Innovation Capacity

Krishnan, Satish (satishk@iimk.ac.in)


Despite the increasing significance of IT innovations and corporate ethics, there is a dearth of research investigating whether and how the ethical behavior of firms in a country relates to B2C e-commerce diffusion among its firms. Drawing on the ethical climate theory, the stakeholder theory, and the resource-based view of the firm, we posit that the ethical behavior of firms in a country will be positively related to B2C e-commerce diffusion, and this relationship will be serially mediated by the degree of their customer orientation and the extent of their innovation capacity. Our research model is validated using publicly available archival data from 128 countries. The findings suggest that (1) ethical conducts of firms in a country lead to a higher degree of B2C e-commerce diffusion, and (2) customer orientation and innovation capacity serve as the underlying mechanisms explaining this relationship. Further, the study discusses crucial implications for research and practice.

Seller Labs: Democratizing E-Merchants Competitiveness

Rodriguez, Joaquin (joaquin.rodriguez@grenoble-em.com)


Seller Labs was founded to improve the competitiveness of Amazon’s third-party sellers. The company’s core offerings had evolved from a messaging service facilitating communication between customers and sellers to an advanced suite of marketing, advertisement, and financial software tools. Since its inception, Seller Labs continually increased its customer base, reaching more than 9,000 customers by 2019. Being one of the first and most successful software tool providers addressing specific business problems faced by Amazon sellers, Seller Labs was part of Amazon’s Marketplace developer council and was at the frontline of innovation. However, Seller Labs’ main competitors continued to grow in size and strength both nationally and internationally, threatening its competitive position. With the objective of expanding its offerings outside the Amazon’s Marketplace, Seller Labs acquired X-Cart, an e-commerce platform. However, many challenges lay ahead after the acquisition. How should Seller Labs continue to grow? Should the firm continue to focus on the development of solutions targeted to Amazon’s third-party sellers? Should the firm pivot outside the Amazon Marketplace and develop an integrated e-commerce platform?

Addressing Change Trajectories and Reciprocal Relationships: A Longitudinal Method for Information Systems Research

Mishra, Abhay (abhay@iastate.edu)


This paper makes a focused methodological contribution to the information systems (IS) literature by introducing a bivariate dynamic latent difference score model (BDLDSM) to simultaneously model change trajectories, dynamic relationships, and potential feedback loops between predictor and outcome variables for longitudinal data analysis. It will be most relevant for research that aims to use longitudinal data to explore longitudinal theories related to change. Commonly used longitudinal methods in IS research – linear unobserved effects panel data models, structural equation modeling (SEM), and random coefficient models – largely miss the opportunity to explore rate of change, dynamic relationships, and potential feedback loops between predictor and outcome variables while incorporating change trajectories, which are critical for longitudinal theory development. Latent growth models help address change trajectories, but still prevent researchers from using longitudinal data more thoroughly. For instance, these models cannot be used for examining dynamic relationships or feedback loops. BDLDSM allows IS researchers to analyze change trajectories, understand rate of change in variables, examine dynamic relationships between variables over time, and test for feedback loops between predictor and outcome variables. The use of this methodology has the potential to advance theoretical development by enabling researchers to exploit longitudinal data to test change-related hypotheses and predictions rigorously. We describe the key aspects of various longitudinal techniques, provide an illustration of BDLDSM on a healthcare panel dataset, discuss how BDLDSM addresses the limitations of other methods, and provide a step-by-step guide, including Mplus code, to develop and conduct BDLDSM analyses.

Air Taxis – A Technological Breakthrough to Beat the Traffic Woes

Tripathi, Manas (manas.tripathi@iimrohtak.ac.in)


Traffic problems across the major cities around the world and the ever-growing population have put immense stress on countries' smart infrastructure needs and requirements. The situation is worse in the busiest streets of emerging economies like India. The existing modes of urban transport are failing to accommodate the rising travel demand, and hence, the city congestion is expected to multiply further in the coming years. This distressing situation creates opportunities for automobile and aircraft makers to develop state-of-the-art urban air mobility (UAM) solutions. The electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) vehicles seem to be the future of urban mobility. The commercialization of air taxis has the potential to completely disrupt the urban transportation system and relieve the urban streets from congestion. The case discusses the factors facilitating speedy drift towards the adoption of air taxis and the recent developments in the UAM industry. To explore the air taxi market opportunities and business feasibility, the case examines the UAM ecosystem, the related cost and technology components, the industry's latest competitive landscape, and anticipated barriers to the successful implementation of the air taxi business. The case outlines allied businesses and complementary revenue streams that the UAM sector would encourage, resulting in a holistic technological and economic growth of developing nations.

Investigating the Role of Tenure Diversity in Information System Project Teams: A Multilevel Analysis

Bourdeau, Simon (bourdeau.s@uqam.ca)


Diversity in information system project (ISP) teams can be a double-edged sword. Since many ISP teams bring together different specialists who have different backgrounds, knowledge and skills, managing their diverse nature is an important concern in the IS field. However, so far, few studies have examined the influence of project teams’ diversity on IS project outcomes. To better understand this influence, this paper’s study developed a multilevel research model that examined job tenure and organizational tenure diversity in ISP teams and their influence on team members’ satisfaction. The study hypotheses were tested by hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) of the data collected from 200 participants in 41 ISP teams. The study results indicate that the influence of job tenure diversity on a team member’s satisfaction is influenced by that member’s length of job tenure: while team “rookies” were more satisfied in teams that had greater job tenure diversity, team “veterans” were more satisfied when their teams had lower levels of job tenure diversity. The study’s systematic and combined application of conceptual and methodological recommendations enabled it to address several limitations of past research and underscored the importance of adopting a more nuanced and rigorous approach to examining diversity in project teams.

Creative Potential Through Artificial Intelligence: Recommendations for Improving Corporate and Entrepreneurial Innovation Activities

Siemon, Dominik (d.siemon@tu-braunschweig.de)


This article shows how the creative performance of start-ups or established organizations can be improved through the use of AI-based systems for actively promoting creative processes. With insights from two studies conducted with entrepreneurs, innovation managers and workshop facilitators, we provide recommendations for companies and entrepreneurs on the ability of AI to support creative potential to remain innovative and marketable in the long term. Our studies cover aspects such as AI for entrepreneurial activities or creativity workshops and show how to make use of AI-based systems to enhance the creative potential of the person, the process or the press (environment). Our findings also provide theoretical insights into the perception of AI as an equal partner and call for further research on the design of AI for the future creative workplace.

Calling for Information Systems Research on eSports: An Overview Study

Ke, Xiaobo (xiaoboke-c@my.cityu.edu.hk)


Online gaming has become a pervasive entertainment activity. Meanwhile, professionalization of this entertainment has resulted in a new blend of sport and business, termed esports. Esports’ future is promising, with widespread acceptance and significant business value. The innovative nature of esports necessitates more research to help understand and shape its future. We hold that scholars, especially information systems (IS) researchers, should pay more attention to this phenomenon, as esports’ constituents (i.e., people, organizations, and technologies) are of key interest to IS field. To increase research attention and help readers understand esports, we compiled this research overview. In it, we first provide a comprehensive definition of esports. Then, we summarize the esports development. We outline the current state of research in general and systematically review the IS perspective. Based on these efforts, we propose an esports research framework with four promising IS research avenues. We end this study with a discussion of “IS contributions” to esports and the implications of this overview. This study is a foundation for comprehensively mapping the landscape of esports practice and research. We hope our findings can help others, especially IS researchers, gain a clearer understanding of esports and guide them towards creating increasingly impactful works.