Controls are obviously needed for any application no matter how processed. Errors occur in the processing of the data with the severity dependent on the dollar relationship between the error and its results. The nature of each error, from the bit to the file usage, can be traced to specific sources. The cause frequently implies the method of choice for correcting that situation. Man, in a generic sense, has always used his thinking ability coupled with business knowledge to control and edit the manual process. These same aspects must also be used in machine processing. The computer can methodically edit and control data for applications, even to including examining character bit structures, but only in so far as human instructions are provided to the machine. To facilitate computer intervention in the data validation process, a validation matrix has been developed and used for over 25 years in this collegiate programming setting.
Schrage, John F.
"Data Validation Matrix for Programming Courses,"
Journal of Information Systems Education: Vol. 16
Available at: https://aisel.aisnet.org/jise/vol16/iss3/2