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Communications of the Association for Information Systems

Forthcoming Papers

Forthcoming papers have been accepted for publication at the Communications of the Association for Information Systems and are listed below in order of acceptance date. Copies of unedited manuscripts can be obtained by contacting the corresponding authors listed below.

Note that the decision to provide a copy rests with the authors, not with the Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

The manuscripts listed here will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proofs before they are published in their final form. During the production process errors may be discovered, which could affect the content. All legal disclaimers that apply to the Communications of the Association for Information Systems pertain. For a definitive version of the works listed here, please check for their appearance online at http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/.



How to Generate More Value from IT: The Interplay of IT Investment, Decision-Making Structure, and Senior Management Involvement in IT Governance

Turedi, Serdar (sturedi@pnw.edu)

Abstract

Information Technology (IT) represents a large portion of investment in an organization. Prior research has identified the linkage between IT investment and productivity. Numerous factors affect the value an organization can derive from its IT investment. However, extant literature understudies the impact of IT governance on business value of IT. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating the effects of IT decision-making structure mechanisms and senior management’s IT governance involvement on the relationship between IT investment and organizational performance. This study builds on a novel framework that integrates two theories on IT in an organizational setting: strategic choice theory and contingency theory. Organization-level IT investment and IT governance practice data are pooled with other organization characteristics to investigate the moderating effects of IT governance practices. The empirical analyses reveal a positive moderating effect of IT decision-marking structure mechanisms on the IT investment–organization performance relationship. Nevertheless, the results indicate that senior management’s IT involvement has no significant effect on this relationship. This study shows the importance of IT governance for organizations to effectively leverage their IT investment.



Politics and AIS: Where Do We Draw the Line?

Fedorowicz, Jane (jfedorowicz@bentley.edu)

Abstract

The Association for Information Systems (AIS) is the preeminent global professional association for academics in the Information Systems (IS) field. Throughout its twenty-plus year history, AIS governance documents have included no guidance on matters related to national or international politics. However, recent events have challenged AIS to reconsider its responsibility as a political or moral advocate for its members and the field it serves. A panel at ECIS 2017 explored the ways in which AIS has inadvertently or intentionally entered the political fray and debated the benefits and drawbacks of taking on a more formal political position. This article presents the positions raised by each of the panelists and summarizes the active discussion that followed. It concludes with a set of questions comprising a “call to action” to AIS Council to enact a politically acceptable set of core values to benefit its members.



HICSS Panel Report on Cognitive Foreshadowing: Next Steps in Applying Neuroscience and Cognitive Science to Information Systems Research

Randolph, Adriane B. (arandol3@kennesaw.edu)

Abstract

The use of neurophysiological tools within the information systems domain has received increased attention over the last decade. The Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences has helped provide a home for rigorously exploring such work through related minitracks and symposia. This paper reports on a panel presented at the HICSS-49 conference held in 2016, during a symposium organized to help orient interested researchers to the usefulness of cognitive neuroscience in IS research. This paper first introduces the rise in the IS field for integrating the methodologies and tools of cognitive neuroscience. Then, it presents individual viewpoints from the varying panel members at the symposium as they addressed questions of longevity, applicability, and next steps for the neuroIS sub-discipline. The four panel members included: Alan Dennis, Angelika Dimoka, Allen Lee, and Ofir Turel.



Social Networks among Students, Peer TAs, and Instructors and Their Impacts on Student Learning in the Blended Environment: A Model Development and Testing

Dang, Yan (yan.dang@nau.edu)

Abstract

Because of its flexibility and effectiveness, blended learning has become popular in higher education. Previous studies have discussed and presented various methods and cases that can be used and leveraged in blended courses. Other studies have described and examined the technology and/or systems that are used to support blended learning. However, no research has been seen to examine student learning from the social network perspective. Compared with traditional, face-to-face instruction, blended learning incorporates a great portion of online activities. Thus, less frequency of interactions among students, teaching assistants (if any), and instructors can be expected. Therefore, it would be of interest and importance to examine whether and how (if any) social networks among students, peer teaching assistants, and instructors could influence student learning in the blended environment. To do this, we developed and tested a research model with a large sample size of 699 students who took a blended class. The results indicated that all three types of networks (including student-student networks, student-peer TA networks, and student-instructor networks) significantly influenced both social presence and interaction, which in turned had significant impacts on learning climate and perceived academic performance.



Managing Ambidexterity in Startups Pursuing Digital Innovation

Müller, Sune (sdm@processinnovation.dk)

Abstract

With the current pace of digital innovation, corporations and startups alike are experiencing the challenge of surviving in hypercompetitive environments. Accordingly, the management literature proposes “organizational ambidexterity”, the ability to balance exploitative and exploratory efforts, as a means of survival. Based on observations and interviews with startups and investors affiliated with the entrepreneurial educational program SCALEit, this study investigates how startups can manage ambidexterity in the pursuit of digital innovation. Our study concludes that startups conducting digital innovation manage to attain organizational ambidexterity through internal and external adaptation by combining and enacting competencies. The startups have access to a competency portfolio, consisting of eight core competencies, across organizational boundaries. These competencies are provided by the startup CEO, team members, and individuals in the ecosystem surrounding the startup, thus revealing a new perspective on how to achieve organizational ambidexterity through leveraging both internal and external competencies.



Getting Information Systems Programs Classified as STEM: A US-Based Perspective from an AIS Task Force Study and Panel Discussion

Jones, Mary (mary.jones@unt.edu)

Abstract

STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) is a designation for educational degree programs. Programs that have STEM designation have benefits associated with them that non-STEM programs do not. To be classified as STEM, a program must meet certain criteria. Programs within the natural sciences, engineering, and math departments often readily meet these criteria. Although programs such as information systems, information technology, and business intelligence have technology at their core, it is often difficult for these programs, especially in Colleges of Business, to meet the STEM defined criteria. This study provides an overview of STEM designation and insight into information systems and related degree programs that have received this designation based on findings from an AIS task force and an AMCIS panel discussion.



Does Technostress Inhibit Employee Innovation? Examining the Linear and Curvilinear Influence of Technostress Creators

Srivastava, Shirish (srivastava@hec.fr)

Abstract

Despite the increasing quantum of research on technostress, three gaps are particularly noteworthy. First, though prior studies have described ‘technostress creators’ through the five dimensions —techno-overload, techno-invasion, techno-complexity, techno-insecurity, and techno-uncertainty, in an aggregated way, the individual influence of each of these technostress creators on job outcomes has not received adequate attention. Second, though past organizational research suggests a curvilinear relationship between job-stress and job-outcomes, it has not been examined if the stress-performance dynamics for the technostress context follows the organizational stress literature. Third, despite the emphasis on information and communication technology (ICT) enabled innovation in firms, the influence of technostress creators on ICT-enabled innovation has not been explored in-depth. Grounding our arguments in the control theory of occupational stress and conservation of resources (COR) theory, we first theorize the linear and curvilinear relationships for each of the five technostress creators with ICT-enabled employee innovation, and then test the hypothesized relationships through a survey of organizational employees who regularly use ICTs for professional tasks. The results offer a nuanced understanding about the nature of individual technostress creators and their relationships with ICT-enabled employee innovation. On the practical front, our research paves the way for more meaningful technostress management strategies within organizations.



Construction of Design Science Research Questions

Thuan, Nguyen Hoang (nhthuan@ctuet.edu.vn)

Abstract

Posing research questions is a fundamental step to guide and direct knowledge development in research. In design science research (DSR), research questions are important to define the scope and the modes of inquiry, characterize the artifacts, and communicate the contributions. Despite the importance of research questions, there are few guidelines on how to construct suitable DSR research questions. We fill this gap by exploring ways of constructing DSR research questions and analyzing the research questions in a sample of 104 DSR publications. The results show that about two thirds of the analyzed DSR publications actually use research questions to link their problem statements to research approaches and that most of the questions are aimed at problem-solving. Based on our analysis, we derive a typology of DSR question formulation to provide guidelines and patterns that help researchers formulate research questions during their DSR projects’ duration.



The Impact of Multilevel Contextual Factors on IS Adoption at the Inter-Organizational Level

Kurnia, Sherah (sherahk@unimelb.edu.au)

Abstract

Inter-organizational information systems (IOIS) offer many potential benefits to organizations. IOIS adoption has increased in the last decades, but there has been a high degree of IOIS adoption variances across different contexts. There are limited in-depth investigations into how contextual factors affect IOIS adoption variances at the inter-organizational (IO) level, particularly from a multilevel perspective. This paper proposes a novel multilevel framework to analyze what combinations of contextual factors at national, industry, IO, and organizational levels influence IOIS adoption variances at the IO level. We present an in-depth, exploratory case study of the Indonesian grocery industry that identified three IO configurations between manufacturers, distributors and retailers with IOIS adoption variances. We found that the combinations of multilevel contextual factors varied for each configuration, which resulted in a more nuanced and holistic understanding of the IOIS adoption variances observed at the IO level. We argue that our multilevel framework could help avoid contextual fallacy by encouraging scholars to examine the influence of higher-level factors on IOIS adoption variances at the IO level, and avoid atomistic fallacy resulting when scholars make the wrong assumption that IOIS adoption at the organizational level implies adoption at a higher level.



Update Tutorial: Big Data Analytics: Concepts, Technology, and Applications

Watson, Hugh J. (hwatson@uga.edu)

Abstract

The original paper on big data analytics was published by CAIS in Volume 34, Article 65, 2014. Since then, there have been significant advances in the technologies, applications, and impacts of big data analytics. While the original paper’s content remains accurate and relevant, there was a perceived need to provide an update on important, recent developments.



Opening the Black Box of Advisory Services in Information Technology Outsourcing: An Advisory Activity Model

Linden, Robert (robert.linden@wiso.uni-koeln.de)

Abstract

Information technology outsourcing (ITO) is an important market phenomenon and research topic. Recently, the role of advisory services has been identified as a key driver for successful ITO engagements. This research paper investigates the constituent parts and activities of third-party advisory services in ITO engagements for the first time. We used an exploratory qualitative research approach and conducted 14 expert interviews with experienced industry practitioners. Within our data analysis, we identified 104 factors, which serve as the basis for a novel IT advisory activity model for ITO. We were able to identify common viewpoints of the advisor and matched them with findings from other research studies based on a literature review. Our model provides interesting insights into an important topic of ITO, the role of advisory services in client-vendor relationships. This study delivers a basis for further research about advisor’s influence on clients and vendors in the ITO context.



The Generation of Qualitative Data in Information Systems Research: The Diversity of Empirical Research Methods

Goldkuhl, Göran (goran.goldkuhl@liu.se)

Abstract

This paper investigates the concept of data collection in information systems qualitative research. In this text, the term “data collection” is replaced by “data generation”, emphasizing that the researcher arranges situations that produce rich and meaningful data for further analysis. Data generation comprises activities such as searching for, focusing on, noting, selecting, extracting and capturing data. This paper analyzes and compares a repertoire of empirical research methods for the generation of qualitative data. It describes and visualizes (through a common data generation template) twelve research methods: Interviewing, questionnaire study, document study, artifact study, observation study, participant observation, intervention study, practice-based design study, lab-based design study, focus group study, test study, and self-reporting. These data generation methods are compared concerning 1) the role of the researcher in data generation, 2) the influence on everyday life reality of data generation, 3) the relationship to everyday life reality, 4) the addressed parts/mediators of everyday life reality, 5) the expected value of generated data and 6) possible shortcomings in generated data. As a basis for the inquiry on data generation, an ontological clarification (based on a practice-theoretical perspective) is made of the empirical landscape of information systems (the kinds of phenomena and sources of data that exist). A concluding discussion contains 1) analyses concerning relationships between data generation methods and compound research methods/strategies such as case study research, action research and design science research, and 2) the role of interpretation in data generation vs. data analysis.



MIS-understood: A Longitudinal Analysis of MIS Major Misperceptions

Annabi, Hala (hpannabi@uw.edu)

Abstract

Low information system (IS) enrollment continues to present a threat to IS programs and pose a serious problem to companies in desperate need of IS professionals. Research attributes low enrollment and shortage of IS talent to misperceptions of the nature of IS programs, careers, and job prospects. Recent research (Akbulut-Bailey, 2012) suggests that enrollment is still low despite improved perceptions about the IS job market. This begs the question as to whether the misperceptions of IS careers and programs still exist and whether that is the main factor in why students do not pursue the IS field. Utilizing the case study method (Yin 1984), this paper provides a longitudinal view of the misperceptions of IS, how they have changed, and ways in which to meaningfully combat this problem.



Champions of IS Innovations

Renken, Jaco (jaco.renken@manchester.ac.uk)

Abstract

Champions have been studied in diverse settings and kinds of initiatives; a significant body of work is also growing steadily in the information systems field. However, there is still a lack of clarity about the distinctiveness of IS champions. Given the poor track record of IS project success and champions’ importance to that success, the paper argues that this lack of conceptual clarity about the uniqueness of IS champions constitutes a significant and urgent gap. In part, this gap exists because of inadequate consolidation of knowledge about IS champions thus far. In response, we follow a systematic literature review by approaching this gap from two viewpoints: a research process perspective whereby we investigate the approaches and practices followed in IS champion research; and a thematic perspective whereby we examine progress with the accumulation of knowledge about IS champions to date. Our findings culminate in three contributions: 1) Eight IS champion distinctive features are proposed using a classification scheme; 2) A refined definition of IS champions is offered which better reflects the distinctiveness of the champion role in IS innovation; 3) Findings from process and thematic perspectives are combined in an agenda to take IS champion research forward.



Opportunities and Challenges in Healthcare Information Systems Research: Caring for Patients with Chronic Conditions

Ho, Shuk Ying (susanna.ho@anu.edu.au)

Abstract

To prepare for the 2030 “baby-boomer challenge”, some governments have begun to implement healthcare reforms over the past two decades. These reforms have led to healthcare information systems (ISs) evolving into a major research field in our discipline. This research field has increasing individual, organizational, and economic impact. Because of the 2030 “baby-boomer challenge”, the number of elderly individuals is increasing, and they may have chronic illnesses, such as eye problems and Alzheimer’s disease. The practical need for healthcare ISs supporting chronic care motivated us to conduct a literature synthesis and identify opportunities for healthcare IS research. Specifically, we present the chronic care model and analyze how academic discussions on healthcare ISs have been developed in our discipline to address the needs of patients with chronic illness. Further, we identify research gaps and discuss the research topics on healthcare ISs that can be extended and customized to support these patients. Our results stimulate and guide future research in the healthcare IS field. This paper has the potential to strengthen the body of knowledge on healthcare ISs.



ICT-enabled Refugee Integration: A Research Agenda

AbuJarour, Safa'a (safaa.abujarour@uni-potsdam.de)

Abstract

The recent phenomenon that has come to be known as the European refugee crisis is in reality a global problem. Accordingly, issues regarding refugee integration have become a central topic of debate worldwide. In this paper, we try to understand how refugees use information and communication technology (ICT) in different regions of the world to understand how ICT is supporting refugees’ desperate journey to safety, their stay in temporary settlement camps, and their post-settlement inclusion in host countries. With this goal in mind, we first conducted a series of interviews with Syrian refugees in Berlin, Germany to collect preliminary insights. Then, we organized panel discussions at two key information systems conferences (ICIS 2016 and ECIS 2017) involving participants from various countries. The panel discussions revealed seven key research themes: accessibility to information; availability of education and linguistic resources; admissibility to labor markets and entrepreneurship opportunities; communicability with home country; connectedness with local population; interactivity with host government; and volunteer coordination. We discuss how ICT might help to address issues related to each theme, present research questions relevant to each theme, and supply an illustration of how ICT has been employed to address an aspect of each theme. Insights gathered lead to: theoretical implications and future opportunities for research in the field of Information Systems; practical implications to be considered by different stakeholders interested in refugee integration; and social implications related to refugee crisis that cannot be ignored.



Critical Success Factors for Online Education: Longitudinal Results on Program Satisfaction

Urbaczewski, Andrew (andrew.urbaczewski@du.edu)

Abstract

For the past 15-20 years, many researchers have investigated the differences (or lack thereof) between online and face-to-face (f2f) course delivery and student learning. Most of this body of research concerns an individual course, an individual faculty, or a particular technology or tool. However, we don’t yet know much about the factors that are critical for the success of an online degree program. Which factors have the greatest impact on student satisfaction with an online degree program? Data on seven potential critical success factors were collected from 2009 to 2014 to measure their impact on student satisfaction. The final model shows Course Conduct, Admissions, Curriculum, and Prior Experience with Online Courses at that same location to be significant predictors of program satisfaction.



The Information Technology Professional: A Two-Wave Study of Factors Impacting Commitment and Satisfaction

Brooks, Nita G. (nita.brooks@mtsu.edu)

Abstract

This paper presents a two-wave study examining the relationships between three independent variables (professional identification, psychological contract violation, and fairness) and three dependent variables (general satisfaction, satisfaction with the information technology (IT) profession, and affective commitment to the IT profession). The constructs analyzed are of concern to the IT workforce and represent areas where the literature has provided conflicting results with regard to the nature of the relationships. Due to the lack of consistency related to causality among these variables, 10 separate canonical correlation models were used to analyze the responses from two surveys distributed across three years. Results consistently revealed a significant relationship between perceived psychological contract violation and fairness with the dependent constructs related to satisfaction (general, and with the IT profession). Both gender and tenure in the IT profession played a role in the identification process for this group of individuals. Additional findings are presented and discussed along with limitations and directions for future research.



Designing Monitoring Systems for Continuous Certification of Cloud Services: Deriving Meta-Requirements and Design Guidelines

Lins, Sebastian (sebastian.lins@kit.edu)

Abstract

Continuous service certification (CSC) involves the consistent gathering and assessing of certification-relevant information about cloud service operation to validate ongoing certification criteria adherence. Previous research has proposed test-based CSC methodologies that directly assess components of the cloud service infrastructure. However, test-based certification requires access to the cloud infrastructure by certification authorities, which may be limited due to various issues. To address these challenges, cloud service providers have to monitor their cloud service infrastructure to gather certification-relevant data by themselves, and then provide these data to certification authorities, which is referred to monitoring-based CSC. Nevertheless, we require a better understanding of how to design monitoring systems to enable monitoring-based CSC of cloud services. By taking a design science perspec-tive, we derive universal meta-requirements and design guidelines for CSC monitoring systems based on findings from five expert focus group interviews with 33 cloud experts and 10 one-to-one interviews with cloud customers. With this study, we have expanded the current knowledge base regarding CSC and monitoring-based CSC. Our derived design guidelines contribute to the development of CSC monitoring systems and enable monitoring-based CSC that overcomes issues of prior test-based approaches.



Does Chatting Really Help? Tweet Analytics and Analyst Forecast Dispersion

Choi, Ka Wai (stanley.choi@anu.edu.au)

Abstract

Financial analysts use tweet analytics to prepare their forecasts, yet there is little information describing how this operates. To address this gap, this paper scrutinizes the associative relationships between tweets about a company’s service and the dispersion of analyst forecasts of the financial performance of the related company. We developed three sets of hypotheses. We extracted tweets related to airlines from the Twitter data generated by the Archive Team and analyst forecast data from Institutional Brokers’ Estimate System—Academic. We obtained airline-related tweets from nearly 200,000 individual Twitter users with regard to 10 airlines during a 55-month study period, and ran multiple regressions to test the associations between tweet characteristics and forecast dispersion. Our results suggest that, when there are more tweets about a company’s service generated by more posters, analysts make less dispersed forecasts. In addition, negative (or non-verified) tweets reduce forecast dispersion to a greater extent than do positive (or verified) tweets. Theoretically, this paper confirms that Twitter can be a useful data source to provide analysts with additional information to prepare their forecasts. Practically, our findings provide empirical evidence of how the Twitter data is associated with analyst forecast dispersion. Stakeholders (such as analysts from small firms and individual investors) are encouraged to extract data from Twitter as a supplement to market information in their data analysis.



Impact of MBA Programs’ Business Analytics Breadth on Salary and Job Placement: The Role of University Ranking

Turel, Ofir (oturel@fullerton.edu)

Abstract

Although many business schools have started to offer business analytics programs and courses for their MBA students, there is a lack of understanding of how these efforts translate into job market gains for their graduates, and whether the playing field is level for all business schools. To bridge this gap, we use signaling theory to investigate the impacts of the business analytics breadth (BAB) level and university ranking of MBA programs on graduates’ future employment success in terms of salary and job placement. We collected and analyzed data on business analytics relevant courses offered by the top 89 business schools in the United States, as listed on bloomberg.com. Findings revealed the vital role of university ranking in determining the efficacy of BAB to produce job market gains for students; university ranking moderated the effect of business analytics offerings on post-graduation salary and job placement. These findings provide interesting insights for researchers and business schools interested in understanding the return on investment in business analytics programs.



Social Participation among Elderly: Moderated Mediation Model of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Srivastava, Shashi Kant (f13shashis@iimidr.ac.in)

Abstract

Social participation for elderly has been identified as a salient activity for the successful aging and hence needs to be invigorated. ICT usage results in the social participation of elderly are reported in prior studies. However, literature is silent on its mechanism. Understanding the mechanism by which ICT use lead to social participation will help us know the underlying reasons that are necessary in this process. We develop a conceptual framework considering two prominent IS theories, actor-network theory (ANT) and activity theory (AT), by incorporating four social participation-oriented factors namely; ICT use, social participation, social isolation, and loneliness. A quantitative approach based on the cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 240 elderly. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling based on SmartPLS 3.0. We found that the size of the social network is the critical factor in the association of ICT use to social participation. The outcome of the model suggests that ICT usages do not impact the social participation directly. Rather, social isolation (absence of social network) mediates the relationship between the ICT use and social participation. Additionally, loneliness, one of the commonly observed psychological states at elderly age weakens the influence of ICT usages on social isolation. Our research advances the theoretical understanding of social participation of seniors and offers governments and businesses to prepare the ICT plan for elderly appropriately.



An Open Platform for Modeling Method Conceptualization: The OMiLAB Digital Ecosystem

Bork, Dominik (dominik.bork@univie.ac.at)

Abstract

This paper motivates, describes, demonstrates in use, and evaluates the Open Models Laboratory (OMiLAB) - an open digital ecosystem designed to support conceptualization and operationalization of conceptual modeling methods. The OMiLAB ecosystem is motivated by a generalized understanding of "model value" and is targeted to research and education stakeholders fulfilling various roles in a modeling method's lifecycle - modelers, domain experts, methodologists, modeling software developers, knowledge workers, model-driven software engineers etc. While much is reported on novel modeling methods and tools for various domains, only limited knowledge is available on the conceptualization of such methods by means of a full-fledged dedicated open ecosystem and a methodology that facilitates entry points for novices, as well as an open innovation space for experienced stakeholders. This gap is maintained by the lack of an open process and platform for (a) conducting research in the field of modeling method design, (b) developing agile modeling tools and model-driven digital products, and (c) experimentation with, and dissemination of such methods & related prototypes.



Ethical Issues in Big Data Analytics: A Stakeholder Perspective

Someh, Ida Asadi (i.asadi@business.uq.edu.au)

Abstract

Big data analytics is a fast-evolving phenomenon shaped by interactions among individuals, organizations and society. However, its ethical implications for these stakeholders remain empirically underexplored and not well understood. We present empirical findings from a Delphi study that identified, defined and examined the key concepts that underlie ethical issues in big data analytics. We then analyze those concepts using stakeholder theory and discourse ethics and suggest ways to balance interactions between individuals, organizations and society in order to promote ethical use of big data analytics. Our findings inform practitioners and policy-makers concerned with the ethical use of big data analytics and provide a basis for future research.



Information Technology Firms: Creating Value through Digital Disruption

Templeton, Gary F. (gtempleton@msstate.edu)

Abstract

Information technology (IT) firms compose the majority of the most highly valued corporations in the world based on market capitalization. To date, the only companies in the world that have been at or near a trillion-dollar market capitalization are IT firms: Apple and Amazon. The value provided by IT speaks to how managers exploit disruptive technologies to create value in both IT and non-IT firms. A panel held at the 2018 Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) discussed various ways in which firm value is built around IT through successful management. This paper reports on the panel discussion from a variety of perspectives, which include practitioner and researcher worldviews. This panel report also provides a sample frame that researchers can use in quantitative research involving IT firms and advocates for increased research to understand the wide range of strategies IT firms use to create value.



Overview of the Multilevel Research Perspective: Implications for Theory Building and Empirical Research

Zhang, Meng (m.zhang@qut.edu.au)

Abstract

A multilevel perspective in information systems (IS) research promotes understanding phenomena simultaneously at multiple levels of analysis. In understanding and employing the multilevel perspective, researchers may face challenges in relation to the value contribution, the terminology, and the critical differences between multilevel and single-level research. To address the challenges, this tutorial synthesizes contemporary thinking on the multilevel perspective. In particular, we clarify the various value contributions of the multilevel perspective, offer a consistent terminology for conducting multilevel research, and present a holistic overview of the guidelines in relation to theoretical model specification, operationalization, and theoretical model testing. This tutorial provides researchers with a holistic understanding of the multilevel perspective, allowing researchers to develop a deeper appreciation of the nuanced assumptions underlying the perspective. Thus, this paper contributes by helping researchers to more effectively and more flexibly engage in multilevel research.



Off-The-Shelf Artificial Intelligence Technologies for Sentiment and Emotion Analysis: A Tutorial on Using IBM Natural Language Processing

Carvalho, Arthur (arthur.carvalho@miamioh.edu)

Abstract

A premise behind artificial intelligence (AI) is that machines can behave in a human-like way and potentially solve complex analytics problems. Recent years have seen a number of off-the-shelf AI technologies that claim to be ready to use. In this paper, we illustrate how one of such technologies, called IBM Natural Language Understanding (NLU), can be used to solve a data-analytics problem. First, we provide a detailed step-by-step tutorial on how to use NLU. Next, we introduce our case study, where we investigate the implications of a Starbucks’ pledge to hire refugees. In this context, we use NLU to assign sentiment and emotion scores to social-media posts related to Starbucks made before and after the pledge. Findings indicate that consumers’ sentiment towards Starbucks became more positive after the pledge, whereas investors’ sentiment became more negative. Interestingly, we find no significant relationship between consumers’ and investors’ sentiments. With help from NLU, we also find that consumers’ sentiments were not consensual in that there was a great deal of mixed emotions in the social-media posts. As part of our case study, we find that NLU correctly classifies the polarity of sentiments 72.64% of the time, an accuracy value much higher than the 49.77% achieved by the traditional bag-of-words approach. Besides illustrating how practitioners/researchers can use off-the-shelf AI technologies in practice, we believe the results from our case study provide value to organizations interested in implementing corporate-social-responsibility policies.



Exploring the Design of mHealth Systems for Health Behavior Change using Mobile Biosensors

Noorbergen, Tyler J. (tyler.noorbergen@uon.edu.au)

Abstract

A person’s health behavior plays a vital role in mitigating their risk of disease and promoting positive health outcomes. In recent years, mHealth systems have emerged to offer novel approaches for encouraging and supporting users in health behavior change. A promising technology in this regard are mobile biosensors, that is, sensors that enable the collection of physiological data (e.g., heart rate, respiration, skin conductance) and that are intended to be worn, carried, or accessed during normal daily activities. Designers of mHealth systems have started to use the health information that can be gained from physiological data for the delivery of behavior change interventions. However, research providing guidance on how mHealth systems can be designed to utilize mobile biosensors for health behavior change is scant. In order to address this research gap, we conducted an exploratory study. Following a hybrid approach that combines deductive and inductive reasoning, we integrated a body of fragmented literature and conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with mHealth stakeholders. Arising from this study, a theoretical framework and six general design guidelines were developed, shedding light on the theoretical pathways for how the mHealth interface can facilitate behavior change and providing practical design considerations.



If Practice Makes Perfect, Where do we Stand?

Galletta, Dennis F. (galletta@pitt.edu)

Abstract

The role of practitioners is one of the important early stepping stones in the development of the field of Information Systems. In the 1970s, IS researchers’ integration with practitioners was high, with SIM members receiving copies of the MIS Quarterly, practitioners funding the ICIS Doctoral Consortium, and submissions receiving at least one practitioner review. Today, however, the integration between practitioners and researchers appears more distant. Given that almost 50 years have passed since the field’s development, we believe it is important to reflect on the past, present, and future relationship of IS research and IS practice. Has the distance between academics and practitioners become too great? Is our relevance too low to expect practitioners to join AIS and attend our conferences? How might the integration be increased? The panelists have provided position statements regarding those issues.



Conflict and Development: A Headquarter Intervention View of IT Subsidiary Evolution

Jha, Ashish Kumar (ashish-kumar.jha@rennes-sb.com)

Abstract

In this paper, we examine the impact of headquarter intervention on subsidiary evolution, specifically in the context of the Indian IT offshoring industry. We analyze the evolution of a subsidiary in the presence of a rare phenomenon – negative headquarter intervention. Such an evolution of a subsidiary has nuances and theoretical implications that cannot be fully explained by existing frameworks. Although headquarter intervention is a popular lens to study the relationship between a subsidiary and its headquarter, the lens has not been employed in extant research to examine the evolution of subsidiaries. In this paper, we present a generalized model of subsidiary evolution using the constructs of value potential, headquarter intervention, and headquarter control of the subsidiary. In line with the exploratory nature of our study, we conduct an in-depth case study of a multinational firm and its Indian subsidiary over a multi-year time period. We find that in the presence of high potential value in the subsidiary ecosystem, certain headquarter interventions can lead to a conflict between the headquarter and the subsidiary. Headquarter intervention, even with good intentions, if not aligned with interests and value of the subsidiary can negatively affect the growth of the subsidiary.



The Role of Knowledge Management in the Relationship between IT Capability and Interorganizational Performance – An Empirical Investigation

Stylianou, Antonis (astylian@uncc.edu)

Abstract

Knowledge management capability (KMC) is an important link between IT and individual firm performance. We investigate this link in an interorganizational (IO) context – an increasingly important and yet substantially under-researched area. Based on a review and integration of the literature, we develop and test a comprehensive empirical conceptualization of KMC that includes knowledge creation, transfer, retention, and application. Survey data was collected from supply management professionals of one of the partner firms (either customer or supplier) in an IO relationship. The research hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. We find that the KMC of partner firms is positively associated with IO performance. We also find that IO information technology (IOIT) infrastructure capabilities facilitate KMC through the strength of IO relational capability. Partner interdependence is positively associated with IO relational capability and with KMC. Taking a knowledge management (KM) perspective, our research shows that relational capability and KMC are critical for IT to bring performance gains to IO partnerships. These insights have theoretical importance for understanding IT-enabled knowledge management in IO settings and practical significance for firms to effectively utilize their IOIT infrastructure.



User Satisfaction with Information Systems: A Comprehensive Model of Attribute-Level Satisfaction

Vaezi, Reza (reza.vaezi@gmail.com)

Abstract

This study introduces and tests a comprehensive model of attribute-level satisfaction aimed at measuring user satisfaction with Information Systems (IS). Recognising that IS are complex ‘objects’ characterised by multiple subsystems, components, and attributes, this study draws on marketing research and attribute satisfaction theory to assess user satisfaction across three levels of abstraction. The model starts with assessing overall satisfaction as the most abstract level then moves to satisfaction with each of the major components of an Information System, that is, Information, System and Service satisfaction. This is followed by measuring user satisfaction with key attributes of each of the major IS components (e.g. information format, system reliability). The results provide a parsimonious yet practical model, along with associated measures, that is capable of assessing user satisfaction across multiple aspects of Information Systems (i.e. components and attributes) and different user interactions with the IS.



Refining the Threat Calculus of Technology Threat Avoidance Theory

Boysen, Sara (sboysen@txstate.edu)

Abstract

The number of people using fitness devices and mobile health applications creates unprecedented amounts of health-related fitness data. The data collected via these devices are not considered protected health information when no covered entity is involved; therefore, they are not provided the same legal protections as an individual’s health records. Thus, users must ensure their data are kept safe from potential data breaches and malicious activities. This study analyzes users’ motivations to implement safeguards aimed at protecting their private health-related fitness data. To test user motivation, we issued wearable activity tracking devices and an associated online health fitness data account to students. We instructed the students on the use of the fitness device, how the device connected to the user’s phone and web-based application and then had them complete a survey to determine how they form their threat perceptions and other factors influencing their avoidance motivations for computer security incidents. With the exception of safeguard costs and privacy concerns, results support a revised threat calculus in the TTAT model and the original model constructs.



Design and Governance of mHealth Data Sharing

Vesselkov, Alexandr (alexandr.vesselkov@aalto.fi)

Abstract

The proliferation of mobile health (mHealth), namely, mobile applications along with wearable and digital health devices, enables generating the growing amount of heterogeneous data. To increase the value of devices and apps through facilitating new data uses, mHealth companies often provide a web application programming interface (API) to their cloud data repositories, which enables third-party developers to access end users’ data upon receiving their consent. Managing such data sharing requires making design and governance decisions, which must allow maintaining the tradeoff between promoting generativity to facilitate complementors’ contributions and retaining control to prevent the undesirable platform use. However, despite the increasing pervasiveness of web data sharing platforms, their design and governance have not been sufficiently analyzed. By relying on boundary resource theory and analyzing the documentation of 21 web data sharing platforms, the paper identifies and elaborates 18 design and governance decisions that mHealth companies must make to manage data sharing, and discusses their role in maintaining the tradeoff between platform generativity and control.