Behavior research is a major stream in information systems (IS) research. Traditionally,
researchers follow theories and paradigms developed in psychology, sociology, and verify their applicability in information technology adoption and related issues. Questionnaire is the major instrument for investigation. This, however, has a limitation in that it is hard to verify whether the reported data truly reflect the actual mental situation of the subject. It is well-known that human subjects have cognitive restrictions in reporting their implicit attitudes. Therefore, a few techniques have been developed to improve data quality and to avoid problems such as common method biases, unreliable or invalid data.