Despite the proliferation of e-business adoption by organisations and the world-wide growth of the e-business phenomenon, there is a paucity of empirical studies that examine the adoption of e-business in the Middle East. The aim of our study is to provide insights into the salient e-business adoption issues by focusing on Saudi Arabian businesses. We developed a conceptual model for electronic business (e-business) adoption incorporating ten factors based on the technology-organization-environment framework. Survey data from 550 businesses were used to test the model and hypotheses. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis to assess the reliability and validity of constructs. The findings of the study suggest that firm technology competence, size, top management Support, technology orientation, consumer readiness, trading partner readiness and regulatory support are important antecedents of e-business adoption and utilisation. In addition, the study finds that, competitive pressure and organisational customer and competitor orientation is not a predictor for e-business adoption and utilisation. The implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future inquiry are presented.