Most online users dislike advertising because of the obtrusiveness of advertisements. Using an ad-blocking application to secure their watching experience has become a common practice for consumers in the online context. However, this action can impede the effectiveness of brand communication. Acknowledging the need to understand the avoidance behavior of consumers toward advertisements, this study draws from the literature on psychological reactance and uses and gratification theory and proposes a new online advertising format that grants consumers a higher level of freedom with the opt-in/out choice. The design employs the gamification feature with the goal of reducing the psychological reactance of consumers, which in turns influences their attitude toward advertisements and brands. Results indicated that the gamified advertisement format can enhance perceived usefulness, control, and enjoyment, which can help reduce psychological reactance, thereby improving attitude toward advertisements and brands.
Wang, Tien; Ounsanee, Nusaba; and Poolperm, Phumsiri, "Opt in or out? A gamified ad on YouTube: The Role of Gamification and Psychological Reactance" (2022). PACIS 2022 Proceedings. 204.
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