As organizations innovate by increasingly opening their boundaries, resources and actors in innovation ecosystems are interacting to shape these innovations. Our review of the literature on digital innovation and ecosystems suggests that our efforts to develop, understand, and utilize digital innovations may benefit from taking the ecological perspective seriously, not just as metaphors, but as a modeling strategy. Specifically, the concept of ecosystem can be applied to multiple levels of the digital innovation landscape, linking diverse entities such as processes, organizations, industries, communities, and society, as they draw on resources, including attention, knowledge, technologies, and capabilities, to create, distribute, and realize the value of digital innovations. This multilevel, ecological model can help revitalize existing theories, resolve theoretical puzzles, and break new ground in the research both on digital innovation and on innovation ecosystems.
Wang, Ping, "Taking the "Eco" Seriously: A Multilevel Model of Digital Innovation Ecosystems" (2018). PACIS 2018 Proceedings. 186.