Given the prevalence and effectiveness of agile methods at a team level, large organizations are now attempting to mimic this success at large-scale by adopting large-scale methods such as Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe), Spotify, and Large-Scale Scrum (LeSS). However, compared to insights on traditionally small-scale methods, the extant literature provides sparse coverage on theories to examine large-scale agile transformations. In this article, we focus on the challenge of normalizing large-scale agile transformations and apply Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to support theorize about this process. We present our initial case study findings and outline future research on the application of NPT for large-scale transformations. From a research and practice perspective, we explain how NPT can be adopted to focus on the processes of embedding and sustaining practices – activities which are very often ignored, yet central to the success or failure of transformations.
Carroll, Noel and Conboy, Kieran, "Applying Normalization Process Theory to Explain Large-Scale Agile Transformation" (2019). International Research Workshop on IT Project Management 2019. 7.