This research will investigate underlying mechanisms that give rise to paradoxical interests in implementing a blockchain-based national identity system. A realist case study will be deployed for a deep interrogation, beyond empirical observations, to posit socio-technical structures’ potentialities that must have interacted under some contextual conditions for the paradoxes to be present. Data will be collected through iterative non-participant online observation of some local communities around the phenomenon, followed by semi-structured interviews of key actors in addition to triangulating with trace data and related documents. Grounded theory techniques will facilitate an abductive analysis in iteration with the retroductive technique of thought trials to build a substantive causal theory from a complexity lens. Such a theoretical explanation could invite reflection or inform corrective actions for better ICT policies and responsible IT-enable development, especially regarding sustainable identification in society.