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Despite the increasing managerial awareness for ecosystems to organize complex value propositions, little is known about how different roles can establish their business models (BM) in ecosystems. AM drives innovations in the product design and manufacturing fields predominantly across companies, indicating the eco-systemic organization of value creation without orchestrating and dominant keystone actors yet. This paper explores ecosystem determinants by analyzing the dynamic additive manufacturing (AM) paradigm. We conduct an empirical study with companies from the AM domain to visualize their value activities and define generic roles in the interdependent value creation process, adopting the e³-value methodology. By exploring these ecosystem determinants, our results aid practitioners in positioning their BMs in the AM domain and generate descriptive insights for the orchestrator BM design in a dynamic domain without orchestrating keystones.



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