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To improve the academic integrity of online examination, digital proctoring systems have been implemented in higher education worldwide, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we conducted a literature review of the research on digital proctoring in higher education. We found 115 relevant publications in nine databases. We applied topic modeling methods to analyze the corpus which resulted in eight topics. The review shows that the previous studies focus largely on the systems’ development, adoption of the systems, the effects of proctored online exams on students’ performance, and the legal, ethical, security, and privacy issues of digital proctoring. The annual topic trends indicate future research concerns, such as systems’ development, online programs (MOOCs) and proctoring, along with various issues of using digital proctoring. The results of the review provide useful insights as well as implications for future research on digital proctoring, a crucial process for digitalizing higher education.



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