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We investigate how Port and Cargo Community System (CS) adoption research has been operationalized with a Structured Literature Review approach to test whether CS adoption research has a different thematical and methodological focus than overall IS, specifically Inter-organizational Information System (IOIS) research. Despite drastic contextual changes, the dominant research paradigm and subsequently models used to investigate IS innovations' adoption and diffusion mechanisms originated in the early times of computers and the internet. CS research’s different focus allows us to uncover that three underlying assumptions of the dominant paradigm should be challenged in increasingly complex environments, viz. the deterministic view on dependent variables, the independence of explanatory variables, and the independence of innovations from previous, related innovations. Our novel framework, which integrates these insights, can be used in future research and by practitioners to account for the increasing complexity of IS adoption and diffusion processes.



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