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Data labels are an integral input to develop machine learning (ML) models. In complex domains, labels represent the externalized product of complex knowledge. While prior research discussed labels typically as input of ML models, we explore their role in organizational learning (OL). Based on a case study of a German car manufacturer, we contextualize a framework of OL to the use of labels in organizations informing about organizational members who work with labels, requirements of label-based tools, label-related tasks, and impediments of label-related task performance. From our findings, we derive propositions about the role of labels in OL and outline future research opportunities. Our results inform theory about the role of labels in OL and can guide practitioners leveraging labels to create and transfer knowledge within organizations.



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