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Gamification has been touted as a powerful means to incite user engagement and behavioral changes. Recently, the rise of design elements characteristic of gambling design (e.g., chance-based outcomes) has received increased attention in gamification and started to spark a debate of what is gaming in contrast to gambling, and consequently what is gamification in contrast to gamblification. Therefore, to clearly delineate gamblification and associated design elements within the overarching gamification domain, we argue a comprehensive, common classification method is needed for game and gambling design elements applied to non-game and non-gambling contexts. Accordingly, we propose new dimensions and characteristics to extend gamification taxonomies and validate these along practical case examples. This advancement of classification systems can serve as basis for closer examination of design elements determining gamification’s and gamblification’s effectiveness in spurring user experience and engagement and for novel designs of gamified and gamblified systems.



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