Robot applications are gaining momentum in many fields, especially in service-oriented industries. However, the robot usage rate in service industry is relatively low. Thus, we conducted 23 semi-structured interviews in upscale and luxury hotels. Accordingly, we identified barriers to service robot usage from three stages, including the pre-usage stage, the encounter stage, and the post-usage stage. Moreover, based on Expectation-disconfirmation Theory (EDT), we investigated the influential mechanisms of identified barriers. In the pre-usage stage, negative organizational valence and hoteliers’ unreadiness would trigger hoteliers’ low initial expectations to service robot usage. In the sencounter and post-usage stage, robot unfriendly design, robot low working efficiency, and hoteliers’ technostress would jointly influence the expectation-performance disconfirmation. The disconfirmation would cause the hoteliers’ dissatisfaction to service robot usage. Consequently, hoteliers are reluctant to use service robots. The findings extend the literature of service robot studies and Expectation-disconfirmation Theory in the context of hospitality management as well as help guide the development of service robots.
Zheng, Xiaojiang; Fu, Shixuan; and Liu, Ge, "Understanding Barriers to Service Robot Usage: A Qualitative Study in Hotels" (2021). WHICEB 2021 Proceedings. 33.