Swarm intelligence optimization algorithm is an emerging technology tosimulate the evolution of the law of nature and acts of biological communities, it has simple and robust characteristics. The algorithm has been successfully applied in many fields. This paper summarizes the research status of swarm intelligence optimization algorithm and application progress. Elaborate the basic principle of ant colony algorithm and particle swarm algorithm. Carry out a detailed analysis of drosophila algorithm and firefly algorithm developed in recent years, and put forward deficiencies of each algorithm and direction for improvement.