Critical Success Factors (CSF) remain the most-researched areas within the Enterprise Systems (ES) domain over the years and has resulted in a long ‘list’ of such factors. Consequently, many ‘factors’ are not more than ‘variables’ belonging to the same management area. Therefore, this paper argues for going back to the original definition of CSFs as few key areas and reviews empirical evidence in each CSF area. Thereafter, the paper notes other limitations of the CSF literature and suggests research directions to provide a deeper explanation of the ES phenomena. These include tracing CSFs across time, taking a change-centric view of the ES lifecycle, unpacking interrelationship among CSFs, paying attention to the implementation context, and moving from a list of CSFs to the identification of their underlying mechanisms. We hope that our suggestions will provide a roadmap to ES researchers on conducting focussed research on CSFs.