From around 2008, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) promised a new way in which universities could better position themselves for future disruptions to the Higher Education (HE) sector. Anyone with an internet connection was now able to access vast numbers of courses, without having to pay expensive tuition fees. Now, ten years later, MOOCs as a disruptive technology, have been tried and tested. In this article, a thematic literature review is conducted to evaluate the implementation of MOOCs. The main findings are that HE institutions offering MOOCs often rate their successes or challenges in terms of the monetary returns, course uptake and completion rates, the authentication of students and the formal accreditation of courses. Other important factors include the nature and role of student engagement, the sustainability of MOOCs and the urgent need for course materials to be available and accessible. While this study focuses on the UK HE experience, future research will need to examine the usefulness of MOOCs in different country and learning contexts.