Many researchers and educators have questioned whether online course management technologies make a significant impact on student learning process and outcomes. Guided by the Seven Principles framework of student learning, our study examined the impacts of three instructional methods including face-to-face (F2F), hybrid (Web-enhanced), and online courses on the learning process and outcomes. Data were collected at a major mid-western university and 1233 valid responses were analyzed in AMOS. We found that there was no significant difference among F2F, hybrid, and online instructional methods in learning outcomes. However, both high expectation of faculty and accommodation for diversity influenced learning outcomes significantly. In addition, faculty contact had a significant impact on outcomes but only in hybrid courses.
Schiller, Shu and Johnson, Bruce W., "No Difference? A Study On Learning Process And Outcome Among Online, Hybrid, And Face-To-Face Courses" (2009). Proceedings of the 2009 AIS SIGED: IAIM International Conference on Information Systems Education and Research. 22.