Although practitioners are facing increasing complexities and high rates of failure in IS development, research in the field has not yet developed adequate theory to address the issues involved. This study first analyzes the benefits and shortcomings of existing strategies of IS development, agile and traditional development, and then theorizes four underlying dimensions along which these strategies differ: change responsiveness, knowledge tacitness, people-driven, and customer collaboration. The strategy contingency perspective is utilized to theorize the effects of organizational culture and project uncertainty of IS development strategy. Using this perspective, a framework is developed that identifies two new strategies of IS development, in addition to the existing traditional and agile strategies. These two strategies of IS development are labeled the responsive process strategy and the creative optimization strategy. This may help explain practitioner surveys that report that most organizations adopt agile practices for some projects and not others, and that