The success of enterprise systems (ES) hinges on the work performance of system users in the stable post-adoptive stage. With a high failure rate of ES implementation, it is crucial to explore factors that could enhance users’ work performance. Drawing on literature on IS post-adoption and system use-related behaviors, this study proposes a theoretical model to understand how different types of ES use-related behaviors (i.e., technology interaction behaviors, task-technology adaptation behaviors and individual adaptation behaviors) can induce better performance in the stable phase of post-adoption. A field survey involving 250 physicians was conducted to test the proposed research model. The results showed different effects of ES use-related behaviors on improving users’ work performance. Individual adaptation behaviors enhanced the user performance, while technology interaction behaviors and task-technology adaptation behaviors did not show significant effect on performance. Interestingly, individual adaptation and task-technology adaptation behaviors could moderate the relationship between system use and performance, yet in an opposite manner. This study offers important contributions to ES researchers and practitioners.