Social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook and Twitter, are gaining more popularity and use among students in higher education institutions. Based on the design principles, feature usability and interactivity and affordability, these sites offer a variety of opportunities to support student engagement and student learning. Despite the potential pedagogical advantages of SNSs, and the widespread usage among students and considerable time spent daily on SNSs, the results of many studies indicate that the use of SNSs for academic purposes is still significantly limited. In the present study, individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted based on a purposeful sampling strategy in order to explore in depth the factors that might motivate students to devote more time and efforts for academic purposes on SNSs; accordingly, a Framework for Student Engagement in SNSs (FSESNS) is proposed.