Customer relationship management (CRM) is a combination of people, processes, and technology that seeks to provide understanding of customer needs, to support a business strategy, and to build long-term relationships with customers. Successful utilization of the integrated technology requires appropriate business processes and organizational culture to adequately address human behavioral elements. Because it is not simply a technology solution, success in CRM business revolves largely around people. In order to build a clearer understanding of the content and role of the human processes of CRM, this study analyzes the literature on CRM processes and people dependencies and forms propositions about the need for human processes in CRM. It emphasizes the responsibility of executives and operational staff in making critical decisions and using intimate communications to conduct relationship management with their customers. Typical CRM human processes are those that are difficult to implement or that cannot be carried on using technology solutions alone, including such activities as planning customer strategy, designing CRM processes, coping with customer problems, understanding customer needs, handling intimate communications, and integrating customer responses. Factors that affect the dependency of human processes in CRM are related to customer factors, the content of information, employee capabilities, and the organizational environment. Propositions formed in this study are that the dependency on human processes in CRM is affected by (1) customer emotional needs; (2) the need for tacit customer information; (3) employees’ experience; and (4) the organizational culture.
Shang, Shari S.C and Chen, Chih-Hsiang, "Human Processes in Customer Relationship Management" (2007). PACIS 2007 Proceedings. 87.