The digital divide has attracted enormous attention from both the popular press and information systems researchers. A survey study was conducted to determine the impact of the digital divide on studentsí self- directed learning in an information technology-based learning environment through their computer self- efficacy, and to assess the role of the school IT environment in bridging this digital divide. Partial least square analyses, with data from more than 5,000 middle school students, show many significant effects. Computer self- efficacy has an effect on self-directed learning. Home PC (personal computer) ownership has a significant effect on computer self-efficacy. The school IT environment affects the computer self-efficacy of students with or without a home PC in different ways. In general, a better perceived school IT environment has more impact on students without a home PC, and thus is important in reducing the impact of the digital divide. The findings provide strong evidence of the digital divide affecting computer self-efficacy and learning behavior, and support investments in improving school IT environments.