Discussions about new forms of work and organization are typically framed by time, space, and the roles played by information and communication technologies. However, the meaning of time, space, and technology is often taken-for-granted. In this paper, we explore these concepts by first developing a set of constructs and, second, presenting some initial theorizing on the relationships among these constructs. To do so we represent time and space as socially developed constructs of temporal and spatial relations. We conceptualize a func- tional view of information and communication technologies. And, we characterize work as varying by two characteristics: the level of worker interdependence and the degree of work autonomy. Integrating these five constructs into an initial framework allows us to theorize that new forms of work are moving toward four distinct forms, each with particular spatial, temporal, and information technology characteristics.
Lee, Heejin and Sawyer, Steve, "Conceptualizing Time and Space: Information Technology, Work, and Organization" (2002). ICIS 2002 Proceedings. 25.