This paper describes research investigating the effectiveness of web-based virtual learning environments by comparing them to traditional classroom environments. A conceptual framework is proposed contrasting the effectiveness of these two environments using both objectivist and constructivist learning models. Although technology may serve as a mediator that enhances the implementation of certain features of a learning model, it is evident that the learning model—not the technology—is the primary cause of learning. Theory predicts that a higher level of “learner control” leads to more effective learning. Control and flexibility, among other advantages offered to the learner in virtual environments, lead us to propose that such environments are more effective than the traditional environments regardless of the learning model employed. Furthermore, it is proposed that virtual environments are even more effective when the constructivist model is employed.