A new generation of software development processes is improving how organizations build systems. However, observers recognize that complementary efforts to improve cost estimation and managerial control are sorely lacking. Existing cost estimation procedures, especially those based on source lines of code or function point analysis, were designed to support 3GL development, in the absence of application generators, high-level object-based composition approaches, and other integrated computer-aided software engineering (ICASE) approaches.
Kauffman, Robert and Kumar, Rachna, "Toward a New Metric for Representing Output in Object-Based Software Development" (1996). ICIS 1996 Proceedings. 39.