One of the more common approaches to involving users in the system development process is called JAE) (Joint Application DevelopmenO. The JAD approach is based on highly structured, facilitated meetings and, as such, has the potential to be supported by Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS). A multiple-site field study was conducted in which JAD meetings - both traditional and electronic - were observed. Some differences between JAD and JAD supported by EMS were found. The quality of group member participation was more equal in supported JAD meetings, but supported JAD meetings lacked the session discipline of traditional JAD, Further, conflict resolution (closure) emphasized in traditional JAD was not achieved m several electronic sessions. Overall session management activities - the responsibility of the facilitator for integration of the session with other life cycle activities - was weaker in JAD supported by EMS.