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As the adoption of information technologies, especially the Internet technologies, there is an increasing interest on inter-organization collaboration in e-business. The ‘collaboration’s in the existing literatures often mean different. These diverse views make it difficult to understand what the collaboration is and to know what have been achieved and what still needs to be done. The paradigm of e-Collaboration has yet to be established. This paper provides a framework for Inter-organization e-Collaboration. The framework identifies the heart of e-Collaboration — joint intellectual efforts, which has seldom been explored by existing studies. Moreover, existing relevant literatures are organized and are analysed using the framework and future research directions are indicated based on the analysis.