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To evaluate the R&D development in China, we can inspect both the R&D expenditure and the research talent pool. In this paper, we analyze the structure of the researcher groups by using dynamic shift-share analysis (DSSA). The DSSA results show that there is still much room to improve in the structure of research group. The provinces/municipalities from eastern China did not perform well in engineering and education researcher groups while the provinces/municipalities from central and western China perform well in engineering, agriculture and education researcher groups. We suggest that the government planners should implement more effective measures to improve the structure of the researcher groups in order to spend the R&D fund wisely and attract more extra fund in R&D.