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Based on air cargo import and export statistics of China Customs, the international air cargo network structure and its flow characteristics in mainland China were studied in this paper. Overall development trends and flow distribution of international air cargo in mainland China were analysed. The major air cargo import and export countries (regions), the main categories of commodities, and the major customs and hub airports were identified. Through our study, a relatively complete view of international air cargo network in mainland China was constructed, in which the major flight routes linking destinations and sources of international air cargo as well as the categories and amounts of air cargo could be revealed. This paper also includes challenges to the further development of mainland China's international air cargo, and proposals to meet these challenges.