Document Type



The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the theories of complexity may give insight and a new perspective into the preparation of decision-making at the municipal level. Based on concepts like emergence, self-organization, far-fromchaos, connectivity and feedback processes, the paper suggests that more attention should be paid to the invisible dynamics of the preparation process. Municipalities are regarded as open and complex social systems that must ensure democracy and make effective decisions at the same time. Furthermore, municipalities should be able to analyze information and to construe the meaning of their operational environment. Among other things, officeholders and politicians should also be creative and innovative. This paper is based on a conceptual analysis done by the author. The literature of that analysis included several dissertations concerning decision-making at the local government level in Scandinavian countries, particularly in Finland . This paper is based also on other sources. This paper is descriptive and interdisciplinary in nature, and the goal is to outline a framework for future research.