Since the inception of the construct of transaction governance structure (TGS), transaction cost economics (TCE) has become an important anchor for the analysis of a wide range of economic and organizational issues. As theory of TCE advances, the perception of TGS has shifted from a polar classification (market/hierarchy) towards a continuum of market-hierarchy . Despite the development in conceptual framework, empirical work based on the idea of the market-hierarchy continuum is scarce. Part of the difficulty is the lack of clear defined and operational dimensions of TGS. Although dimensionalization of transaction has received early and explicitly attention, the dimensionalization of TGS is relatively limited. This paper is an initial effort in instrument building. In this paper, we will (1) review the literature on TGS, (2) survey 40 empirical studies from 1982 to 2002, (3) present dimensions of TGS based on Williamson’s work of 1991, (4) run a preliminary test to compare TGSs of brick-and-mortar and click-and-order.
Zhang, Aimao, "Transaction Governance Structures of Brick-and-Mortar and Click-and-Order: An Instrument Design Study" (2004). ICEB 2004 Proceedings (Beijing, China). 85.