Many developed and developing countries including the U.S., Singapore, India, the Philippines, Korea, Thailand, European countries and Jamaica, among others, are engaging in the implementation of e-learning programs at a national level, albeit at different stages of the implementation (Pagram and Pagram, 2006; Trindad, 2002). According to Kearns (2002 p.ii), “the impact of globalisation, information and communication technologies, and the accompanying shifts in the economy, labour market, and in the operations of enterprises have led to fundamental changes in the economy and society that have profound implications for the role of education and training.” The traditional means of education is no longer sufficient to satisfy the training needs of a knowledge society. Increased educational outcome has taken on greater importance because competitiveness on a global scale is based on the educational level of human resources (Osin, 1998). Many believe that the use of technology in education has great potential to transform human capital (Barr and Tagg, 1995; Cooper, 1993; Glennan and Melhed, 1996; Harasim, 2000; Nachmias, 2002). The promised benefits of e-learning in producing improved educational outcomes have driven countries to embrace e-learning (Pagram and Pagram, 2006). However, e-learning implementations, for the most part, are entered into without a clear plan and limited knowledge of all the pre-requisites for success (Minges, 2001). Ismail (2002) identifies the lack of a clear cohesive strategy as one of the missing ingredients associated with e-learning programs.
Charlton-Laing, Christine and Grant, Gerald, "Towards a Model For National E-Learning Implementations" (2008). GlobDev 2008. 13.