With the advent of virtual reality (VR), immersive learning environments are considered as viable e-learning environments. Yet, there is still no clarity on the long-term success with VR when learning. We examine the short-term and long-term learning outcomes between an illustrated text, 2D video, and VR. This is achieved through an experiment in which the effects of the three technologies on learning outcomes were measured immediately and 14 days after the learning phase. In the short-term, VR had a larger effect on subjectively and objectively measured knowledge gain as well as on motivation than the two other learning environments. In the long-term, VR did outperform the 2D video material on the desktop only when measured objectively. Our results imply that VR can transfer knowledge to the long-term better than other learning environments but more effort needs to be made to make the learning success more obvious on a subjective level.