As digitalization alters industries and societies sustainably, companies increasingly rely on optimized processes. Determined and separated by their strategies, companies consist of various key and support processes that differ in regard to characteristics such as importance, dysfunctionality, and feasibility. Because companies face limited organizational resources, they must consider these characteristics as well as strategical implications when prioritizing processes for improvement. Business Process Man-agement (BPM) is a means to improve agility, responsiveness, and quality. Most BPM concepts view process prioritization as implicit and hardly provide explanations about the conditions, strategies, and consequences pertaining to the phenomenon. This article conducts a systematic literature review to determine the current state of research on process prioritization and sketches out avenues for future research. Our results suggest that the current body of literature focuses primarily on methods for pro-cess prioritization, while lacking ample answers to the questions of why, when, and with what conse-quences. Consequently, future research must develop theories and explanations as a foundation for more holistic concepts and generalizable implications.