We live in a time when anyone can change from a passive bystander to an active communicator during a crisis. This makes user-generated content a potentially valuable source of information for emergency management agencies. However, at present, agencies still hesitate to use social media during crises. This research seeks to identify the challenges emergency management agencies face in using social media analytics within their organisations. We conducted a systematic literature review and interviewed ten emergency management professionals across six expert interview sessions. Afterwards, we used the Technology-Organization-Environment Framework to conceptualise our findings. Our study reveals fruitful opportunities for the continuous collaboration of both information systems research and emergency management agencies. Accordingly, information systems research can support emergency management agencies in using social media data for efficient crisis management by enhancing awareness of the benefits of social media analytics and helping to overcome organisational and technological challenges.