Augmented Reality (AR) based teaching and learning has evolved rapidly over the past years. Re-searchers have shown that AR has the potential to deliver persuasive learning experiences in for-mal teaching (e.g., in classrooms) and in informal learning environments (e.g., museums). Howev-er, comparatively little extant research is firmly grounded in learning theories and applies rigor-ous empirical methods to evaluate the effect of AR on learning performance. In order to build a cumulative body of knowledge on AR-based instructional design and its effectiveness, it is neces-sary to consolidate both the theoretical foundations of and empirical evidence for using AR for teaching and learning. Against this background we conducted a focused systematic literature re-view on theoretical and empirical foundations of AR in education. We identify theory-based de-sign elements and empirical measures for developing and applying AR teaching and learning ap-plications and consolidate them in a design framework.