Prior literature has produced two theoretically opposing perspectives on the relationship between clan control, a type of cultural control, and formal control. Some researchers view formal control as the antithesis of clan control, while others suggest that formal control facilitates clan control. In this research-in-progress paper, we argue that formal control and clan control can be both substitutes and complements, depending on the type of formal control used by the project manager. In particular, we suggest that the use of behavior control inhibits clan control, while the use of input and outcome control facilitates clan control. Suggestions for future work are discussed.
Heumann, Jakob and Wiener, Martin, "THE ROLE OF FORMAL CONTROL IN FACILITATING CULTURAL CONTROL" (2012). ECIS 2012 Proceedings. 194.