This paper presents findings from an ongoing cross-cultural study exploring implementation of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) in higher education. Semi-structured interviews were made with key personnel at three university departments providing public health education in Lithuania, Norway and Sweden during 2004-2005. Technology acceptance in the context of the innovation decision process was focused during the interviews. The data was analyzed from the perspectives of innovation diffusion theory and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Findings give evidence that a high degree of performance expectancy among university staff seems to enhance the implementation process. Factors found to obstruct the implementation process were: 1) the concept of “academic freedom” put forward as an argument for not using educational technology, and 2) an organisational culture depicting teaching on campus as the ideal pedagogical approach.