This paper discusses the potential problems and benefits of combining theory-testing and theorybuilding analyses of qualitative case study data. The examination is conducted in two contexts; first, that of carrying out both analyses within the positivist paradigm, and secondly, in combining positivist theory-testing analysis with interpretive theory-building analysis. A research design is used to illustrate the discussion. Potential benefits can be classified under a better understanding of the phenomenon in question, an improved research process and quality, as well as individual and social benefits. Furthermore, the philosophical, cultural, psychological and practical problems stemming from this setting are discussed.