Users appropriate a technology innovation as they adapt and adapt to its capabilities. This paper argues that the appropriation of technology innovations – information and communication technologies such as devices and systems – is actually part of the design process. The design of a technology innovation is completed by users as they appropriate it. The contributions of the paper are to draw attention to the crucial role played by users’ actions in completing the design process and to examine the implications for the design and implementation of technology innovations. The challenge for designers is to design malleable technologies that can be adapted to users’ organisational, social and personal practices, and then to harvest users’ needs from the appropriated innovation in order to improve its design. For managers, trainers and IS staff involved in the implementation of innovations, the challenge is to encourage and support users’ appropriation activities.
Carroll, Jennie, "Completing Design in Use: Closing the Appropriation Cycle" (2004). ECIS 2004 Proceedings. 44.