Owing to the turbulent and fast changing environment in which Chinese firms operate, Information Systems (IS) implementation triggers important organizational changes in these firms. Starting with the premise that both the depth and nature of such changes are markedly different from what firms experience in other economies, this paper makes an attempt in conceptualizing issues relating to IS implementation in the Chinese context. It addresses critical success factors, expounds on the processes involved, and deals with the criteria for assessing a firm’s success or failure. A case study was conducted which entailed the examination of two key applications, financial accounting and personnel administration. This initial exploration indicates relevance of certain factors in the existing literature, and brings to light the potentiality of several factors pertinent to the current state of the Chinese business environment, which is heavily influenced by the cultural and economic backgrounds of this huge country. The study is the beginning part of a larger research program, which aims to include multiple cases in different but major industries. The findings enrich the literature on IS implementation by offering some new dimensions of understanding.