At present, humans could be direct targets of hacked bio- or nanotechnologies. This paper describes the future of biotechnology and nanotechnology, focusing on smart motes and bio-engineered products based on genome mapping. Then threats from these emerging technologies are developed to show different attack potentials. Finally, alternative development activities are proposed that mitigate the risks posed to humans.
Conger, Sue, "Bio-Nanotechology: A Human Attack Vector" (2009). CONF-IRM 2009 Proceedings. 18.