This research in progress project emanates from work done examining the effect that national culture has on the adoption of instant messaging (IM). TAM was used to measure the effects that culture has on IM adoption, and our hypothesized theoretical effects on the TAM constructs of PU and PEU were supported empirically. However, the TAM relationship of PUàBI was not significant in any of the data samples. Surprised by the lack of support for this relationship given the high degree of support for elements of the TAM model in the literature, we conducted a series of focus groups to determine why unsatisfactory results were obtained. Based on these focus groups, a new study has been designed to test TAM across various levels of complex systems.