This paper aims to justify the need for refining the concept of the traditional three-tier client-server architecture to address the drastic changes we have encountered in the form of information processing needs demanded by the public and the information processing services supplied to the public. The paper suggests much needed revisions to the traditional approach and demonstrates how the Information Service Architecture fits into the realm of future systems development by using a fairly complex example of an information system implementation.
Thomas, Manoj A. and Redmond, Richard T., "From the Client-Server Architecture to the Information Service Architecture" (2009). AMCIS 2009 Proceedings. 115.